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A Rapid-ACCE review of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 allele testing to inform warfarin dosing in adults at elevated risk for thrombotic events to avoid serious bleeding

Monica R. McClain, Glenn E. Palomaki, Margaret Piper, and James E. Haddow

in Human Genome Epidemiology, 2nd Edition: Building the evidence for using genetic information to improve health and prevent disease

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195398441
eISBN:
9780199776023
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195398441.003.0031
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter describes the results from a Rapid-ACCE review (Analytic validity, Clinical validity, Clinical utility, and Ethical, legal, and social implications), designed to facilitate the ... More


Event Time Analysis

Ezra Susser, Sharon Schwartz, Alfredo Morabia, and Evelyn J. Bromet

in Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195101812
eISBN:
9780199864096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195101812.003.26
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter describes statistical methods for taking account of unequal attrition, that is, different follow-up times across exposed and unexposed groups in a cohort study. It considers methods for ... More


Values and health risks

Bob Heyman

in Risk, Safety and Clinical Practice: Health care through the lens of risk

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780198569008
eISBN:
9780191717499
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569008.003.03
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter starts from the observation that a sense of adversity is bound into modern risk-thinking. Evoking risk conveys to the contemporary mind that a negatively valued outcome is causing ... More


Health risk and the patient safety agenda

Monica Shaw

in Risk, Safety and Clinical Practice: Health care through the lens of risk

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780198569008
eISBN:
9780191717499
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569008.003.09
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reflects on the UK Government's approach to tackling patient safety, and the complexities that arise with respect to developing the evidence base on which it is supposed to depend. It ... More


Describing Discrete-Time Event Occurrence Data

Judith D. Singer and John B. Willett

in Applied Longitudinal Data Analysis: Modeling Change and Event Occurrence

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195152968
eISBN:
9780199864980
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152968.003.0010
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents a framework for describing discrete-time event occurrence data. Section 10.1 introduces the life table, the primary tool for describing event occurrence data. Section 10.2 ... More


Data analysis requirements and procedures

Curtis L. Meinert and Susan Tonascia

in Clinical Trials: Design, Conduct and Analysis

Published in print:
1986
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195035681
eISBN:
9780199864478
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195035681.003.0018
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter details general principles to be followed when results are analyzed. It also contains brief descriptions of commonly used methods of analysis for trials involving a binary event as the ... More


Odds Ratio and Relative Risk: Odds Ratio

Steve Selvin

in Epidemiologic Analysis: A Case-Oriented Approach

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195146189
eISBN:
9780199864720
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195146189.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents a two-part study. The first part examines the relationship between exposure to maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and the risk of a low birth weight infant among four ... More


The Use of Surveys in Public Health Surveillance: Monitoring High-Risk Populations

William D. Kalsbeek

in Monitoring the Health of Populations: Statistical Principles and Methods for Public Health Surveillance

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195146493
eISBN:
9780199864928
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195146493.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews the use of surveys and survey research in monitoring the well-being of the public and its constituencies and in identifying groups at increased risk for adverse health outcomes. ... More


Measuring the population impact

Richard F. Heller

in Evidence for Population Health

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529743
eISBN:
9780191723919
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529743.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reports on a number of ways to examine the impact of risk factors and intervention benefits on the population as a whole. It begins with a new set of “population impact measures” which ... More


Contributions to change: major risk factors and the potential for prevention

R. Beaglehole and A. Dobson

in Coronary Heart Disease Epidemiology: From aetiology to public health

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198525738
eISBN:
9780191724114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525738.003.0038
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter assesses the impact of changes in the major coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors to changes in CHD event and mortality rates. The major risk factors can account for large ... More


The design of questionnaires

Emily White, Bruce K. Armstrong, and Rodolfo Saracci

in Principles of Exposure Measurement in Epidemiology: Collecting, Evaluating, and Improving Measures of Disease Risk Factors

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198509851
eISBN:
9780191723827
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509851.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The objective of questionnaire design is to minimize error in exposure measures while creating an instrument that is easy for the interviewer and subject to use and easy to process. This chapter ... More


Clinical Trials in Neurology

Lorene M. Nelson, Caroline M. Tanner, Stephen K. Van Den Eeden, and Valerie M. McGuire

in Neuroepidemiology: From principles to practice

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195133790
eISBN:
9780199863730
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195133790.003.17
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter provides extensive coverage of concepts related to controlled clinical trials in neurology. It describes the main issues in clinical trial design, conduct, and analysis, by examples from ... More


A Framework for Investigating Event Occurrence

Judith D. Singer and John B. Willett

in Applied Longitudinal Data Analysis: Modeling Change and Event Occurrence

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195152968
eISBN:
9780199864980
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152968.003.0009
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter introduces the essential features of event occurrence data, explaining how and why they create the need for new analytic methods. Section 9.1 provides a context by describing three ... More


Evidence, Strategies, and Challenges for Assuring Vaccine Availability, Efficacy, and Safety

Saad B. Omer and Sam F. Halabi

in Global Management of Infectious Disease After Ebola

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
October 2016
ISBN:
9780190604882
eISBN:
9780190604912
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190604882.003.0013
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

In chapter 13, Saad B. Omer and Sam F. Halabi examine the evidence, strategies, and challenges surrounding vaccine safety as novel technologies and expanding coverage introduce new factors to ... More


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