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New Realities and Counterintuitive Worlds:: Accomplishments and Concerns

Vaclav Smil

in Transforming the Twentieth Century: Volume 2: Technical Innovations and Their Consequences

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195168754
eISBN:
9780199783601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195168755.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Technical advances based on unprecedented levels of energy use brought a new phenomenon of mass consumption as well as many obvious gains in the typical quality of life. However, they have not ... More


Racial Stigma: Toward a New Paradigm for Discrimination Theory

Glenn C. Loury

in Understanding Poverty

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195305197
eISBN:
9780199783519
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195305191.003.0027
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This essay examines interconnections between “race” and economic inequality in the United States, focusing on the case of African Americans. It is crucially important to distinguish between racial ... More


On Economic Inequality

Amartya Sen

Published in print:
1973
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198281931
eISBN:
9780191715815
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198281935.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This book, which was first published in 1973, presents a systematic treatment of the conceptual framework as well as the practical problems of the measurement of economic inequality. Alternative ... More


Postwar Trends in Income, Earnings, and Schooling

Edward N. Wolff

in Does Education Really Help?: Skill, Work, and Inequality

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195189964
eISBN:
9780199850792
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189964.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This chapter first sets out the purpose of the book, which is to consider whether government investment in education and training would be more or less effective at alleviating economic inequality ... More


Poverty, Equity, and Growth

Deepak Lal and H. Myint

in The Political Economy of Poverty, Equity and Growth: A Comparative Study

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294320
eISBN:
9780191596582
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198294328.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The interrelationships between poverty, equity, and growth are addressed. The first section of the chapter deals with various issues on the measurement of wealth and welfare, and provides a ... More


Welfare Economics, Utilitarianism, and Equity

Amartya Sen

in On Economic Inequality

Published in print:
1973
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198281931
eISBN:
9780191715815
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198281935.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

The usefulness of the main schools of welfare economics (old and new) in measuring inequality is analysed. It is noted that the literature on Pareto optimality avoids distributional judgements ... More


Measures of Inequality

Amartya Sen

in On Economic Inequality

Published in print:
1973
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198281931
eISBN:
9780191715815
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198281935.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

Various measures of inequality that have been proposed in the literature are discussed. These fall into two categories: those that measure in some objective sense—positive measures that make no ... More


Inequality as a Quasi‐Ordering

Amartya Sen

in On Economic Inequality

Published in print:
1973
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198281931
eISBN:
9780191715815
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198281935.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

It is argued that the difficulty of using the positive and normative measures of inequality described in the previous chapter arises from the fact that they are ‘complete’ measures. Each of these ... More


Work, Needs, and Inequality

Amartya Sen

in On Economic Inequality

Published in print:
1973
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198281931
eISBN:
9780191715815
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198281935.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

Some of the broader issues concerning economic inequality are addressed. Inequality is sometimes viewed in relative terms, viz., as a departure from some notion of appropriate distribution, based on ... More


On Kerala's Development Achievements *

V.K. Ramachandran

in Indian Development: Selected Regional Perspectives

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198292043
eISBN:
9780191684852
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198292043.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, South and East Asia, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter presents a major historical account of Kerala's impressive record in eliminating basic deprivations at an early stage of economic development. Kerala is distinct among Indian states in ... More


Education

John Knight and Lina Song

in The Rural-Urban Divide: Economic Disparities and Interactions in China

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198293309
eISBN:
9780191684975
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198293309.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, South and East Asia, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter discusses that, between urban and rural China, there are great differences in income, welfare levels, and opportunities for self-fulfilment, as well as educational provision and ... More


How Much Inequality Is Fair?: Mathematical Principles of a Moral, Optimal, and Stable Capitalist Society

Venkat Venkatasubramanian

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780231180726
eISBN:
9780231543224
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231180726.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

Many in the United States feel that the nation’s current level of economic inequality is unfair and that capitalism is not working for 90% of the population. Yet some inequality is inevitable. The ... More


Land Inequality, Education, and Marriage: Empirical Evidence from Nineteenth-Century Prussia

Francesco Cinnirella and Erik Hornung

in Demographic Change and Long-Run Development

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036627
eISBN:
9780262341660
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036627.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter offers an account of how institutional factors affect marriage, fertility, and education decisions. It reveals that higher landownership concentration was associated with lower ... More


The Cracked Foundation Revealed by the Great Recession

Josh Bivens and Lawrence Mishel

in Failure by Design: The Story behind America's Broken Economy

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801450150
eISBN:
9780801460654
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801450150.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This chapter reveals the underlying weaknesses in the physical, economic, and social infrastructure in the American economy. The past thirty years has seen a number of important trends that were the ... More


Kenneth Sokoloff on Inequality in the Americas

Peter H. Lindert

in Understanding Long-Run Economic Growth: Geography, Institutions, and the Knowledge Economy

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226116341
eISBN:
9780226116426
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226116426.003.0013
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter describes the evolving project that tied inequality to just about every other major force in the economic and political history of the Americas, and argues that the pathbreaking work by ... More


Presence and Representation

Bina Agarwal

in Gender and Green Governance: The Political Economy of Women's Presence Within and Beyond Community Forestry

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199569687
eISBN:
9780191721847
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199569687.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental, International

This chapter introduces the book and outlines its scope. It spells out the ideas that motivated the research, what we can learn from existing studies, and where the gaps lie. It also outlines the ... More


Inequality in Cuba after the Soviet Collapse

James K. Galbraith

in Inequality and Instability: A Study of the World Economy Just Before the Great Crisis

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780199855650
eISBN:
9780190261375
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199855650.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

This chapter discusses Cuba, a socialist country that managed to overcome the collapse of the U.S.S.R., without seriously and fundamentally transforming its own economic system. Cuba experienced ... More


Economic Inequality and the World Crisis

James K. Galbraith

in Inequality and Instability: A Study of the World Economy Just Before the Great Crisis

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780199855650
eISBN:
9780190261375
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199855650.003.0013
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

This concluding chapter discusses the results of studies and measurement pertaining to economic data. It shows the need to redefine the study of economic inequality, and to restructure, to some ... More


Inequality and the reform era in China

Carl Riskin

in The Oxford Companion to the Economics of China

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
December 2014
ISBN:
9780199678204
eISBN:
9780191788635
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199678204.003.0069
Subject:
Economics and Finance, South and East Asia

On the threshold of the reform era, China had one of the most equally distributed national incomes in the world. This chapter discusses various aspects of present-day economic inequality in China. ... More


Inequality in China

John Knight

in The Oxford Companion to the Economics of China

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
December 2014
ISBN:
9780199678204
eISBN:
9780191788635
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199678204.003.0070
Subject:
Economics and Finance, South and East Asia

This chapter discusses income inequality in China. The topics covered include the two main sources of information on inequality over time: the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) and the periodic ... More


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