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COGNITIVE BIAS MODIFICATION: THE EFFECTS OF TRAINING PARADIGMS

Jenna G. Suway and Nathan A. Fox

in Cognitive Neuroscience, Development, and Psychopathology: Typical and Atypical Developmental Trajectories of Attention

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195315455
eISBN:
9780199979066
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315455.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Biased social information processing is thought to underlie the development and maintenance of anxiety and depression. Two such biases that have been frequently linked to anxiety and depression are ... More


Introduction

Susan A. Gelman

in The Essential Child: Origins of Essentialism in Everyday Thought

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195154061
eISBN:
9780199786718
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195154061.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This introduction concerns essentialism in everyday thought. Roughly, essentialism is the view that categories have an underlying reality or true nature that one cannot observe directly but that ... More


A Neoconstructivistic Approach to the Emergence of a Face Processing System

Francesca Simion and Irene Leo

in Neoconstructivism: The New Science of Cognitive Development

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195331059
eISBN:
9780199864072
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331059.003.0016
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter examines (1) whether some constraints or prewired attentional biases are present at birth; (2) if these constraints are general or specific; and (3) how they contribute to guide and ... More


Common Vulnerabilities in Psychological Evidence

William J. Koch, Kevin S. Douglas, Tonia L. Nicholls, and Melanie L. O'Neill

in Psychological Injuries: Forensic Assessment, Treatment, and Law

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195188288
eISBN:
9780199870486
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195188288.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Mental health conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are presumed to be valid constructs and are relevant to the legal arena of psychological injuries. This chapter ... More


Teleological Minds: How Natural Intuitions about Agency and Purpose Influence Learning about Evolution

Deborah Kelemen

in Evolution Challenges: Integrating Research and Practice in Teaching and Learning about Evolution

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199730421
eISBN:
9780199949557
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199730421.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Natural selection is the process responsible for the functional adaptation of biological organisms. Despite its basic and applied scientific relevance, it remains one of the most widely misunderstood ... More


The Promise and Challenges of Introducing Tree Thinking into Evolution Education

Kefyn M. Catley, Laura R. Novick, and Daniel J. Funk

in Evolution Challenges: Integrating Research and Practice in Teaching and Learning about Evolution

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199730421
eISBN:
9780199949557
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199730421.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Engaging in tree thinking (using phylogenetic diagrams to interpret and infer historical processes) is a prerequisite for understanding macroevolution. Tree thinking has become increasingly important ... More


Children’s responses to yes-no questions

V. Heather Fritzley, Mako Okanda, Shoji Itakura, and Kang Lee

in Access to Language and Cognitive Development

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199592722
eISBN:
9780191731488
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199592722.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Social Psychology

Questioning is one of the most important means to obtain information from children for both empirical and practical purposes. This chapter reviews research on the issue of whether children, ... More


You Did That on Purpose: Understanding and Changing Children's Aggression

Cynthia Hudley

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300110852
eISBN:
9780300151756
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300110852.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Some children are prone to a particular kind of aggression when they are with their peers. For these children, any harm done to them—even something as inconsequential as a jostle in the lunch line—is ... More


Mothers’ Retention of Literacy Skills

Robert A. Levine, Sarah E. Levine, Beatrice Schnell-Anzola, Meredith L. Rowe, and Emily Dexter

in Literacy and Mothering: How Women’s Schooling Changes the Lives of the World's Children

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195309829
eISBN:
9780199932733
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195309829.003.0038
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter presents the methods of literacy assessment used in the four countries (further details can be found in Appendix A) and the results of analyses designed to answer the question: Did the ... More


Introduction: Valuing Young Voices

Cindy Dell Clark

in In A Younger Voice: Doing Child-Centered Qualitative Research

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195376593
eISBN:
9780199865437
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195376593.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Clinical Child Psychology / School Psychology

Whether to build theories or effective policies, qualitative methods centered on children’s vantage points will likely open a way to fascinating, and paramount, perspectives. A generational gap ... More


Perceptual Constraints on Implicit Memory for Visual Features: Statistical Learning in Human Infants

Richard N. Aslin

in Infant Perception and Cognition: Recent Advances, Emerging Theories, and Future Directions

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195366709
eISBN:
9780199863969
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195366709.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Vision

Younger and Cohen established a “statistical” approach to visual category formation by asking whether infants are sensitive to the correlations among features in five-feature objects. Their results ... More


Learning How to Learn Words: An Associative Crane

Linda B. Smith

in Becoming a Word Learner: A Debate on Lexical Acquisition

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195130324
eISBN:
9780199893898
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195130324.003.003
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter discusses Linda B. Smith's concern with how associative mechanisms drive word learning and, more importantly, how they allow the child to build up biases that engender additional word ... More


Induction, overhypotheses, and the shape bias:: Some arguments and evidence for rational constructivism

Fei Xu, Kathryn Dewar, and Amy Perfors

in The Origins of Object Knowledge

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199216895
eISBN:
9780191696039
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199216895.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

The authors in this chapter focus on a case study of how object representations in infants interact with early word learning, particularly the nature of the so-called ‘shape bias’. A short review of ... More


Understanding Intent: One Source of Childhood Aggression

Cynthia Hudley

in You Did That on Purpose: Understanding and Changing Children's Aggression

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300110852
eISBN:
9780300151756
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300110852.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter describes how children's thinking about the world around them has been linked with an increased inclination to use aggressive behavior when interacting with other children. If a child is ... More


Understanding Antisocial Behavior

John C. Gibbs

in Moral Development and Reality: Beyond the Theories of Kohlberg, Hoffman, and Haidt

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780190878214
eISBN:
9780190878245
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190878214.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

The referent for social behavior shifts in this chapter to antisocial behavior and how to account for it. Most offenders, from petty pranksters to ideological terrorists, fail (except for ... More


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