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THE DILEMMA AS REGARDS PERSONAL NEUTRALITY

Ingmar Persson

in The Retreat of Reason: A dilemma in the philosophy of life

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199276905
eISBN:
9780191603198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199276900.003.0030
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter sets out the second dilemma or conflict between the rationalist aim of having rational attitudes and the satisfactionalist aim of fulfilment-maximization. Since it has been found that ... More


Ending the Rationality Wars: How to Make Disputes About Human Rationality Disappear

Richard Samuels, Stephen Stich, and Michael Bishop

in Collected Papers, Volume 2: Knowledge, Rationality, and Morality, 1978-2010

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199733477
eISBN:
9780199949823
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199733477.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter argues that much of the dispute between evolutionary psychologists and those in the heuristics and biases tradition is itself an illusion. The fireworks generated by each side focusing ... More


The Retreat of Reason: A dilemma in the philosophy of life

Ingmar Persson

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199276905
eISBN:
9780191603198
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199276900.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, General

In ancient Greece, philosophy was mainly concerned with guidance on how to live our lives, a philosophy of life. It was then typically assumed that a life in accordance with reason, a rational life, ... More


REPRESENTATIONAL MECHANISMS

Ingmar Persson

in The Retreat of Reason: A dilemma in the philosophy of life

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199276905
eISBN:
9780191603198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199276900.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter develops the account of weakness of will suggested in the preceding chapter by indicating some factors which could prevent dispositional reasons from receiving episodic mental ... More


INTRODUCTION: THE NOTION OF A TEMPORAL BIAS

Ingmar Persson

in The Retreat of Reason: A dilemma in the philosophy of life

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199276905
eISBN:
9780191603198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199276900.003.0015
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter introduces two temporal biases which will be discussed in part III of the book: the bias towards the near (future) and the bias towards the future. It also analyses the irrationality of ... More


THE IRRATIONALITY OF THE BIAS TOWARDS THE NEAR

Ingmar Persson

in The Retreat of Reason: A dilemma in the philosophy of life

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199276905
eISBN:
9780191603198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199276900.003.0016
Subject:
Philosophy, General

The main objective of this chapter is to analyse the irrationality of the bias towards the near, i.e., the tendency to be more concerned about what happens to oneself in the near future than in the ... More


THE IRRATIONALITY OF THE BIAS TOWARDS THE FUTURE

Ingmar Persson

in The Retreat of Reason: A dilemma in the philosophy of life

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199276905
eISBN:
9780191603198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199276900.003.0017
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter argues that the irrationality of the bias towards the future, i.e., the tendency to be more concerned about the future than the past, should be understood in roughly the same way as the ... More


THE DILEMMA AS REGARDS TEMPORAL NEUTRALITY

Ingmar Persson

in The Retreat of Reason: A dilemma in the philosophy of life

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199276905
eISBN:
9780191603198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199276900.003.0018
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Since it has been found that the biases towards the near and the future are irrational, it follows that people who are rationalists, in the sense that their dominant aim is to lead a life in which ... More


INTRODUCTION: THE BIAS TOWARDS ONESELF

Ingmar Persson

in The Retreat of Reason: A dilemma in the philosophy of life

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199276905
eISBN:
9780191603198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199276900.003.0019
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter introduces another bias whose (ir)rationality is the leitmotif of part IV of the book: the bias towards oneself or the tendency to be more concerned that things go well for someone if ... More


THE RATIONAL INSIGNIFICANCE OF IDENTITY AND CONTINUITY

Ingmar Persson

in The Retreat of Reason: A dilemma in the philosophy of life

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199276905
eISBN:
9780191603198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199276900.003.0024
Subject:
Philosophy, General

If we should endorse a factual nihilism to the effect that there is no defensible account of our identity, it follows that we should also endorse an evaluative nihilism to the effect that the bias ... More


SELF-CONCERN AND SELF-APPROVAL

Ingmar Persson

in The Retreat of Reason: A dilemma in the philosophy of life

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199276905
eISBN:
9780191603198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199276900.003.0025
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Chapter 23 concluded that the bias towards oneself is not rationally justifiable. This chapter tries to provide a causal explanation of the elements of this bias. It explains how self-concern arises ... More


Probabilistic Mental Models

Gerd Gigerenzer

in Adaptive Thinking: Rationality in the Real World

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195153729
eISBN:
9780199849222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195153729.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, General

The cognitive bias research claims that people are naturally prone to making mistakes in reasoning and memory, including the mistake of over-estimating their knowledge. This chapter proposes a new ... More


Two Approaches to Ostensible Intuitions

Peter Unger

in Philosophical Relativity

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195155532
eISBN:
9780199833818
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019515553X.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Explores the distinction between the prevalent approach to ostensible intuitions, which takes such intuitions to be indicative of semantic conditions, and the broadly psychological approach, which ... More


Different Attitudes to Time

Derek Parfit

in Reasons and Persons

Published in print:
1986
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198249085
eISBN:
9780191598173
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019824908X.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Discusses whether it is irrational to give no weight to past desires – desires that depend on value judgements or ideals; three attitudes to time: caring more about, or being biased towards, what is ... More


Why We Should Reject S

Derek Parfit

in Reasons and Persons

Published in print:
1986
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198249085
eISBN:
9780191598173
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019824908X.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, General

An argument against the bias towards the near; how a defence of temporal neutrality is not a defence of S; an appeal to inconsistency; why we should reject S and accept CP.


Introduction

Jonathan Ellis and Daniel Guevara

in Wittgenstein and the Philosophy of Mind

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199737666
eISBN:
9780199933372
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199737666.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, General

David Hills’s foreword to this volume begins by wondering how it is that professional philosophers of language and mind have come to regard the late Wittgenstein as a kind of philosophical ... More


The Dilemma of Religious Lawmaking

Lucinda Peach

in Legislating Morality: Pluralism and Religious Identity in Lawmaking

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195143713
eISBN:
9780199786053
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019514371X.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter begins with a discussion of the meaning of the term religious lawmaking. It then describes the factors that make religious lawmaking constitutionally problematic in a morally and ... More


Consequences for Cognitive Psychology

Christopher Mole

in Attention Is Cognitive Unison: An Essay in Philosophical Psychology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195384529
eISBN:
9780199872817
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195384529.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Cognitive psychology’s attempts to explain attention typically proceed via experiments intended to identify the processes that constitute attention’s simplest instances. They therefore ... More


The Implicit Mind: Cognitive Architecture, the Self, and Ethics

Michael Brownstein

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
April 2018
ISBN:
9780190633721
eISBN:
9780190633752
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190633721.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, General

Heroes are often admired for their ability to act without having “one thought too many,” as Bernard Williams put it. Likewise, the unhesitating decisions of masterful athletes and artists are part of ... More


Social Dimensions of Moral Responsibility

Katrina Hutchison, Catriona Mackenzie, and Marina Oshana (eds)

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
April 2018
ISBN:
9780190609610
eISBN:
9780190609634
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190609610.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, General

Philosophical theorizing about moral responsibility has recently taken a “social” turn, marking a shift in focus from traditional metaphysical concerns about free will and determinism. Yet despite ... More


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