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Attention, short-term memory, and biased competition

Edmund T. Rolls

in Memory, Attention, and Decision-Making: A Unifying Computational Neuroscience Approach

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199232703
eISBN:
9780191724046
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232703.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter focuses on the classical view, which is the spotlight metaphor and feature integration theory. It details biased competition and through this single neuron, fMRI, and computational ... More


The measure of facial beauty

Anjan Chatterjee

in The Aesthetic Brain: How We Evolved to Desire Beauty and Enjoy Art

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199811809
eISBN:
9780199369546
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199811809.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

The chapter opens with historical examples that drive home the point that most groups make up stories to proclaim their own exceptionality. The earliest attempts to measure beauty, especially with ... More


Attention and stochastic dynamics

Edmund T. Rolls and Gustavo Deco

in The Noisy Brain: Stochastic Dynamics as a Principle of Brain Function

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199587865
eISBN:
9780191702471
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199587865.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

Recent observations from a number of cognitive neuroscience experiments led to an alternative account of attention termed the ‘biased competition hypothesis’, which aims to explain the computational ... More


Probabilistic decision-making

Edmund T. Rolls and Gustavo Deco

in The Noisy Brain: Stochastic Dynamics as a Principle of Brain Function

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199587865
eISBN:
9780191702471
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199587865.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This chapter shows how an attractor network can model probabilistic decision making. For decision making, the attractor network is trained to have two or more attractor states, each of which ... More


Integrating Auditory and Visual Asymmetry

Heikki Hämäläinen and Fiia Takio

in The Two Halves of the Brain: Information Processing in the Cerebral Hemispheres

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262014137
eISBN:
9780262265942
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262014137.003.0294
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

This chapter examines how auditory and visual asymmetries are integrated, and how there is a default right-sided bias for spatial perceptual and attentional capacity, which, it argues, is multimodal, ... More


Functional Neurosurgery and Deep Brain Stimulation

Matthis Synofzik

in Neuroethics in Practice

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780195389784
eISBN:
9780199979233
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195389784.003.0015
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

Stereotactic and functional neurosurgery has become a powerful field in medicine and neuroscience. In particular, deep-brain stimulation (DBS) seems to be highly successful in ameliorating several ... More


Mind Reading, Neuroscience, and the Law

Henry T. Greely

in A Primer on Criminal Law and Neuroscience: A contribution of the Law and Neuroscience Project, supported by the MacArthur Foundation

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199859177
eISBN:
9780199332694
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199859177.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter starts with a quick survey of the general scientific approaches to mind reading, mainly through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). It then describes five possible applications ... More


Attention, short-term memory, and biased competition

Edmund T. Rolls

in Cerebral Cortex: Principles of Operation

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780198784852
eISBN:
9780191836299
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198784852.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, Behavioral Neuroscience

One mechanism of attention is bottom-up, and uses saliency to direct overt attentional mechanisms such as eye movements. A second mechanism of attention is top-down, in which the attentional effects ... More


Deconstructing Scene Selectivity in Visual Cortex

Reza Rajimehr, Shahin Nasr, and Roger Tootell

in Scene Vision: Making Sense of What We See

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780262027854
eISBN:
9780262319898
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027854.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This chapter examines recent fMRI studies that have reported certain low-level preferences/biases in the scene-responsive areas of visual cortex. It looks at selectivity to low-level visual features ... More


Statistical Strategies for Translational ERP Studies

Todd C. Handy, Lindsay S. Nagamatsu, Marla J. S. Mickleborough, and Teresa Y. L. Liu-Ambrose

in Brain Signal Analysis: Advances in Neuroelectric and Neuromagnetic Methods

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262013086
eISBN:
9780262258876
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262013086.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter concentrates on the traditional least squares approach to equal means testing in general, and univariate repeated-measures ANOVA as typically applied to event-related potential (ERP) ... More


The biased-competition memory system of early mammals

Elisabeth A. Murray, Steven P. Wise, and Kim S. Graham

in The Evolution of Memory Systems

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780199686438
eISBN:
9780191766312
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199686438.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Development

Among many mammalian innovations, a new type of cortex emerged: the neocortex. According to our proposal, part of the neocortex housed what we call the biased-competition memory system. It uses ... More


The manual-foraging memory system of early primates

Elisabeth A. Murray, Steven P. Wise, and Kim S. Graham

in The Evolution of Memory Systems

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780199686438
eISBN:
9780191766312
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199686438.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Development

As early primates adapted to a fine-branch niche, new premotor and posterior parietal areas stored memories about how to reach toward, grasp, and manipulate objects, including foods and branches ... More


The goal memory system of anthropoids

Elisabeth A. Murray, Steven P. Wise, and Kim S. Graham

in The Evolution of Memory Systems

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780199686438
eISBN:
9780191766312
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199686438.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Development

The goal memory system depends on prefrontal areas that first appeared in anthropoids. As anthropoids diversified they became larger animals, with extensive home ranges, long lives, high energy ... More


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