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Model Validation

Helen A. Grogan

in Radiological Risk Assessment and Environmental Analysis

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195127270
eISBN:
9780199869121
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195127270.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter provides a framework for establishing the validity of the mathematical models that are used in radiological assessment. Although model validation can be a contentious topic, largely ... More


The Census Period: 1923–2003

Frederic H. Wagner

in Yellowstone's Destabilized Ecosystem: Elk Effects, Science, and Policy Conflict

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195148213
eISBN:
9780199790449
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195148213.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Winter elk numbers on the northern range have been counted through most of its history, with ground counts up to 1956 (except 1935) and aerial counts up to the present. Several sightability bias ... More


Species’ Occurrence Data

A. Townsend Peterson, Jorge Soberón, Richard G. Pearson, Robert P. Anderson, Enrique Martínez-Meyer, Miguel Nakamura, and Miguel Bastos Araújo

in Ecological Niches and Geographic Distributions (MPB-49)

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691136868
eISBN:
9781400840670
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691136868.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter discusses the process of transforming a species’ primary occurrence data into a synthetic understanding of the geographic and ecological conditions under which the species occurs. The ... More


Quantifying Uncertainty in Net Primary Production Measurements

Mark E. Harmon, Donald L. Phillips, John J. Battles, Andrew Rassweiler, Robert O. Hall Jr., and William K. Lauenroth

in Principles and Standards for Measuring Primary Production

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195168662
eISBN:
9780199790128
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195168662.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Because primary production usually is estimated from several variables that are themselves subject to error in measurement, these errors propagate as the variables are combined mathematically. ... More


Flora Unveiled: The Discovery and Denial of Sex in Plants

Lincoln Taiz and Lee Taiz

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2018
ISBN:
9780190490263
eISBN:
9780190868673
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190490263.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

Sex in animals has been known for at least ten thousand years, and this knowledge was exploited during animal domestication in the Neolithic period. In contrast, sex in plants wasn’t discovered until ... More


Effective Conservation Science: Data Not Dogma

Peter Kareiva, Michelle Marvier, and Brian Silliman (eds)

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780198808978
eISBN:
9780191846687
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198808978.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology, Ecology

This book gathers together 28 personal stories told by leading thinkers and practitioners in conservation – all of whom have something to say about the uncomfortable tension that arises when data ... More


Having the right stuff: the effects of data constraints on ecological data analysis

Earl D. McCoy

in Ecological Statistics: Contemporary theory and application

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780199672547
eISBN:
9780191796487
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199672547.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies, Ecology

The kinds of statistical analyses one can conduct, and the possible conclusions one can draw from them, are determined by the structure and size of the data set employed. In turn, the composition of ... More


Publication and Related Biases

Michael D. Jennions, Christopher J. Lortie, Michael S. Rosenberg, and Hannah R. Rothstein

in Handbook of Meta-analysis in Ecology and Evolution

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691137285
eISBN:
9781400846184
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691137285.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter discusses the increased occurrence of publication bias in the scientific literature. Publication bias is associated with the inaccurate representation of the merit of a hypothesis or ... More


Fish Tales:: Optimism and Other Bias in Rhetoric about Exotic Carps in America

Glenn Sandiford

in Invasive Species in a Globalized World: Ecological, Social, and Legal Perspectives on Policy

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226166049
eISBN:
9780226166216
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226166216.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Invasive species policy is a “trans-scientific” issue, guided by science but ultimately transcending into the realm of opinion and judgment. Since the early nineteenth century, five foreign species ... More


The Quandary Over Plant Sex

Lincoln Taiz and Lee Taiz

in Flora Unveiled: The Discovery and Denial of Sex in Plants

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2018
ISBN:
9780190490263
eISBN:
9780190868673
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190490263.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

Chapter one describes “The Quandary Over Plant Sex” in its historical context. The sexual role of pollen wasn’t discovered until the late 17th century, suggesting a deep cultural bias. Beliefs ... More


Introduction

Steven D. Johnson and Florian P. Schiestl

in Floral Mimicry

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
December 2016
ISBN:
9780198732693
eISBN:
9780191796975
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198732693.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry, Ecology

This chapter focuses on the historical development of ideas about mimicry, including the discovery of floral mimicry, and provides an overview of the key concepts in mimicry research. It defines ... More


Sexual mimicry

Steven D. Johnson and Florian P. Schiestl

in Floral Mimicry

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
December 2016
ISBN:
9780198732693
eISBN:
9780191796975
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198732693.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry, Ecology

Sexual mimicry involves extensive floral modifications, particularly the evolution of highly specialized volatile signals to attract male insects. The study of sexual mimicry in plants has given new ... More


Special cases

Steven D. Johnson and Florian P. Schiestl

in Floral Mimicry

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
December 2016
ISBN:
9780198732693
eISBN:
9780191796975
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198732693.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry, Ecology

This chapter deals with topics that are contentious, difficult to categorize, or fall somewhat outside the mainstream of floral mimicry research. The concept of Müllerian mimicry has been applied to ... More


Conservation bias: What have we learned?

Brian Silliman and Stephanie Wear

in Effective Conservation Science: Data Not Dogma

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780198808978
eISBN:
9780191846687
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198808978.003.0028
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology, Ecology

Conservation science is unique among scientific disciplines in that it was founded on a set of normative principles. The often dogmatic adherence to these principles has made conservation science ... More


Uncomfortable questions and inconvenient data in conservation science

Peter Kareiva and Michelle Marvier

in Effective Conservation Science: Data Not Dogma

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780198808978
eISBN:
9780191846687
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198808978.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology, Ecology

This chapter outlines the problems of exaggeration, misuse of statistics, and publication bias that plague all scientific disciplines, but that may be especially acute in the mission-oriented field ... More


Forty years of bias in habitat fragmentation research

Lenore Fahrig

in Effective Conservation Science: Data Not Dogma

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780198808978
eISBN:
9780191846687
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198808978.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology, Ecology

This chapter evaluates biases that contribute to the common misrepresentation of fragmentation as a major threat to biodiversity. The idea that habitat fragmentation seriously threatens biodiversity ... More


Research synthesis methods in ecology

Jessica Gurevitch and Shinichi Nakagawa

in Ecological Statistics: Contemporary theory and application

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780199672547
eISBN:
9780191796487
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199672547.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies, Ecology

Meta-analysis is quantitative synthesis of the results of different studies addressing questions about the same thing in comparable ways, and is part of the general area of research synthesis. It ... More


Cognitive biases and limitations

Marc J. Stern

in Social Science Theory for Environmental Sustainability: A Practical Guide

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198793182
eISBN:
9780191835117
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198793182.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology, Ecology

This chapter summarizes some of the most common cognitive biases and limitations in human thinking and provides specific strategies for what we can do about them in various contexts. It serves as a ... More


Chemical signals and kin biased behaviour

Gabriele Gerlach and Cornelia Hinz

in Chemical Ecology in Aquatic Systems

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199583096
eISBN:
9780191810091
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199583096.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter explains the theoretical selective advantage and evolution of the chemical cues' influence on social interactions in groups, establishment of mating pairs, and the relationship between ... More


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