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Should There Be Multilateral Rules on Foreign Direct Investment?

Edward M. Graham

in Governments, Globalization, and International Business

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198296058
eISBN:
9780191596209
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198296053.003.0018
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

The surge of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the late 1980s and first half of the 1990s and the associated expansion of the activities of multinational enterprises (MNEs) has left the world a ... More


The Trading System in Perspective

Bernard M. Hoekman and Michel M. Kostecki

in The Political Economy of the World Trading System: WTO and Beyond

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294313
eISBN:
9780191596445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829431X.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Chapter 1 makes up the first part of the book. It presents a brief historical overview of the evolution of the multilateral trading system and introduces the basic functions of the trade regime and ... More


The World Trade Organization

Bernard M. Hoekman and Michel M. Kostecki

in The Political Economy of the World Trading System: WTO and Beyond

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294313
eISBN:
9780191596445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829431X.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

An account is given of the organizational structure of the WTO (World Trade Organization), which was established as a multilateral trade organization on 1 January 1995 to encompass a modified GATT ... More


Negotiating Forum

Bernard M. Hoekman and Michel M. Kostecki

in The Political Economy of the World Trading System: WTO and Beyond

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294313
eISBN:
9780191596445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829431X.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

An analysis is made of the role of the WTO (World Trade Organization) as a forum for negotiations. Special attention is given to the concept of reciprocity, since this is a central element of ... More


Trade in Goods

Bernard M. Hoekman and Michel M. Kostecki

in The Political Economy of the World Trading System: WTO and Beyond

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294313
eISBN:
9780191596445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829431X.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

The main GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) rules on specific instruments of trade control––tariffs, quotas, subsidies, customs procedures, and product standards are described, and the ... More


Sector‐Specific Multilateral Trade Agreements

Bernard M. Hoekman and Michel M. Kostecki

in The Political Economy of the World Trading System: WTO and Beyond

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294313
eISBN:
9780191596445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829431X.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This chapter looks at the major sector‐specific agreements that have been negotiated under the auspices of GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade), and in particular at agriculture, and ... More


Protection of Intellectual Property

Bernard M. Hoekman and Michel M. Kostecki

in The Political Economy of the World Trading System: WTO and Beyond

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294313
eISBN:
9780191596445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829431X.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

An overview is provided of the economic rationales for protection of IPRs (intellectual property rights) and the reasons behind moves to adopt multilateral rules in this area. Some of the major ... More


Safeguards and Exceptions

Bernard M. Hoekman and Michel M. Kostecki

in The Political Economy of the World Trading System: WTO and Beyond

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294313
eISBN:
9780191596445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829431X.003.0010
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

The various mechanisms allowing for the re‐imposition of trade barriers are discussed in this chapter, which summarizes the rules on––and the economics of––the use of instruments of contingent ... More


Regional Integration

Bernard M. Hoekman and Michel M. Kostecki

in The Political Economy of the World Trading System: WTO and Beyond

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294313
eISBN:
9780191596445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829431X.003.0011
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This chapter deals with one of the most important exceptions to the most‐favoured‐nation (MFN) rule allowed by the WTO (World Trade Organization): regional integration agreements (RIAs). Almost all ... More


Integrating Developing Countries and Economies in Transition

Bernard M. Hoekman and Michel M. Kostecki

in The Political Economy of the World Trading System: WTO and Beyond

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294313
eISBN:
9780191596445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829431X.003.0013
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

A brief review is presented of the history of developing country involvement in GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) and the experience of the first five years of the WTO (World Trade ... More


Proliferating Preferential Trade Agreements

Jagdish Bhagwati

in Termites in the Trading System: How Preferential Agreements Undermine Free Trade

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195331653
eISBN:
9780199851850
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331653.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Most preferential trade agreements (PTAs) are in the form of free trade agreements (FTAs), which is a rare few contain an added common external tariff that converts them into customs unions (CUs). ... More


Introduction

Aradhna Aggarwal

in The Anti-Dumping Agreement and Developing Countries: An Introduction

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
October 2012
ISBN:
9780195689273
eISBN:
9780199081486
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195689273.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Anti-dumping is the most important contingent protection measure provided in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)/World Trade Organization (WTO) framework, with countervailing duties and ... More


Genesis and Evolution of the Agreement

Aradhna Aggarwal

in The Anti-Dumping Agreement and Developing Countries: An Introduction

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
October 2012
ISBN:
9780195689273
eISBN:
9780199081486
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195689273.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This chapter presents an overview of the evolution of the Anti-dumping Agreement (ADA). It starts by providing the genesis of the anti-dumping law and its accession to General Agreement on Tariffs ... More


Overview

Anne O. Krueger

in The Regionalization of the World Economy

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226259956
eISBN:
9780226260228
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226260228.003.0010
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Until the postwar era, most favored nation (MFN) status was far from universal. With the passage of the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act in 1934, the United States shifted to an MFN policy for ... More


Introduction

Jeffrey A. Frankel

in The Regionalization of the World Economy

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226259956
eISBN:
9780226260228
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226260228.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This book addresses several large questions. Why do countries adopt free trade areas (FTAs) and other regional trading arrangements? To what extent have existing regional arrangements actually ... More


The Role of History in Bilateral Trade Flows

Barry Eichengreen and Douglas A. Irwin

in The Regionalization of the World Economy

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226259956
eISBN:
9780226260228
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226260228.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

The rise of regionalism continues to pose challenges for specialists in international trade. One classic question is that concerning the aggregate welfare effects of regional trade liberalization. ... More


Why Do Countries Seek Regional Trade Agreements?

John Whalley

in The Regionalization of the World Economy

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226259956
eISBN:
9780226260228
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226260228.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This chapter argues that a wide range of considerations arise when countries seek to negotiate regional trade agreements. Some see trade agreements as providing underpinnings to strategic alliances, ... More


Tariff Phase-Outs: Theory and Evidence from GATT and NAFTA

Carsten Kowalczyk and Donald Davis

in The Regionalization of the World Economy

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226259956
eISBN:
9780226260228
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226260228.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Article XXIV of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade constitution deems admissible customs unions and free trade areas that eliminate duties on “substantially all the trade” between the ... More


Reconstructing the World Trade Organization for the 21st Century: An Institutional Approach

Kent Jones

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
December 2014
ISBN:
9780199366040
eISBN:
9780199366071
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199366040.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This book examines the difficulties of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in completing multilateral trade negotiations and possible ways to improve the situation. The problem lies in the ... More


Institutional Foundations of the GATT/WTO System

Kent Jones

in Reconstructing the World Trade Organization for the 21st Century: An Institutional Approach

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
December 2014
ISBN:
9780199366040
eISBN:
9780199366071
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199366040.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

A brief history of trade institutions illustrates the importance of international specialization and exchange throughout human history. However, trade has also been the source of conflict among ... More


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