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Internal Combustion Engines

Vaclav Smil

in Creating the Twentieth Century: Technical Innovations of 1867-1914 and Their Lasting Impact

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780195168747
eISBN:
9780199835522
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195168747.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Invention and commercialization of automotive internal combustion engines was a multistranded process that began during the 1880s in Germany with design by Benz, Daimler and Maybach, and then ... More


The Surcharge Crisis: October 1964–May 1966

Matthew Broad

in Harold Wilson, Denmark and the Making of Labour European Policy, 1958-72

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9781786940483
eISBN:
9781786945020
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/liverpool/9781786940483.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter highlights both the obvious limitations and marked successes of the SD’s strategy of influencing Labour policy as Harold Wilson became prime minister. Taking the ‘surcharge crisis’ as ... More


Towards the Community: June 1966–May 1967

Matthew Broad

in Harold Wilson, Denmark and the Making of Labour European Policy, 1958-72

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9781786940483
eISBN:
9781786945020
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/liverpool/9781786940483.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

The build-up to the second application for British EEC membership, launched in May 1967, is the subject of this chapter. Despite the Labour landslide general election victory in March 1966 and public ... More


Conclusions

Matthew Broad

in Harold Wilson, Denmark and the Making of Labour European Policy, 1958-72

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9781786940483
eISBN:
9781786945020
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/liverpool/9781786940483.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter surmises the findings from the six main empirical chapters before offering some broader lessons that come from a study of Labour and SD European policy between 1958 and 1972. It suggests ... More


The Birth of the Welfare State

John Kenneth Galbraith

in Economics in Perspective: A Critical History

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691171647
eISBN:
9781400889075
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691171647.003.0016
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter examines the rise of the welfare state in the United States following the Great Depression. It begins with a historical background on the welfare state, tracing its origins to Germany ... More


Positivism and Socialism

Bruce Caldwell

in Hayek's Challenge: An Intellectual Biography of F.A. Hayek

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226091914
eISBN:
9780226091921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226091921.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

In 1903, Carl Menger stepped down from his chair at the University of Vienna, succeeded by Friedrich von Wieser. The next year, Eugen Böhm-Bawerk concluded his third stint as minister of finance, and ... More


When Unit-Based Measurement Ruled the World: An Interdisciplinary Overview, 1870–1910

Ivan Moscati

in Measuring Utility: From the Marginal Revolution to Behavioral Economics

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
December 2018
ISBN:
9780199372768
eISBN:
9780199372805
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199372768.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

In order to illustrate the broad intellectual context within which the early discussions of utility measurement took place, chapter 1 reviews the history of the understanding of measurement in ... More


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