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Educational Reconstruction

Hilary Green

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780823270118
eISBN:
9780823270156
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823270118.001.0001
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This study examines the ways in which black Richmonders, black Mobilians and their white allies created, developed and sustained a system of African American schools following the Civil War. As ... More


The Port Royal Experiment: A Case Study in Development

Kevin Dougherty

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9781628461534
eISBN:
9781626740822
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University Press of Mississippi
DOI:
10.14325/mississippi/9781628461534.001.0001
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

The victory at Port Royal, South Carolina in November 1861 left the Federal government with the responsibility for some ten thousand now-masterless slaves. Lacking a sufficient policy or plan for ... More


Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Christopher B. Bean

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.001.0001
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

In its brief seven-year existence, the Freedmen’s Bureau became the epicenter of the debate about Reconstruction. Cognizant of its responsibilities, partisans fiercely debated its necessity. ... More


Reconstruction's Ragged Edge: The Politics of Postwar Life in the Southern Mountains

Steven E. Nash

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9781469626246
eISBN:
9781469628080
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469626246.001.0001
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

Reconstruction typically brings to mind war-torn plantations and battles over the meaning of freedom after the Civil War. Slavery was such a central part of southern life—permeating every aspect of ... More


Remaking the Former Confederate Capital: Black Richmonders and the Transition to Public Schools, 1865–1870

Hilary Green

in Educational Reconstruction

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780823270118
eISBN:
9780823270156
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823270118.003.0002
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter traces black Richmonders’ efforts to define the meaning of freedom and citizenship through the African American schoolhouse. Through a network of educational partnerships, black ... More


No Longer Slaves: Black Mobilians and the Hard Struggle for Schools, 1865–1870

Hilary Green

in Educational Reconstruction

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780823270118
eISBN:
9780823270156
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823270118.003.0003
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter explores black Mobilians’ hard struggle for the African American education after Confederate defeat. Intense white opposition led by Josiah Nott, arson, and antagonisms with Creoles of ... More


Epilogue: The Blair Education Bill and the Death of Educational Reconstruction, 1890

Hilary Green

in Educational Reconstruction

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780823270118
eISBN:
9780823270156
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823270118.003.0010
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter explores the demise of the Educational Reconstruction and the opening of another phase in African American education with the failed Blair Education Bill. This federal funding bill would ... More


Introduction

Christopher B. Bean

in Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.003.0001
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter briefly chronicles the genesis of the Freedmen’s Bureau and its vague mandate. This vagueness ultimately allowed field agents to improvise and adapt as circumstances developed. A very ... More


“A Stranger Amongst Strangers”: Who Were the Subassistant Commissioners?

Christopher B. Bean

in Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.003.0002
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter examines the 239 subassistant commissioners. Although brief vignettes of the more notable agents exist, the majority of the chapter comprises graphs and charts of the agents’ ages, ... More


“The Post of Greatest Peril”: The E. M. Gregory Era, September 1865–April 1866

Christopher B. Bean

in Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.003.0003
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter examines the brief, yet formative, tenure of the Texas Bureau’s first assistant commissioner, E. M. Gregory. It chronicles the appointment of the first subassistant commissioners, ... More


Conservative Phoenix: The J. B. Kiddoo Era, May 1866–Summer 1866

Christopher B. Bean

in Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter examines the beginning of the J. B. Kiddoo tenure. It begins with the beneficial and adverse effects Kiddoo’s new policy has on subordinates. He focuses subordinates to greater attention ... More


Bureau Expansion, Bureau Courts, and the Black Code: The J. B. Kiddoo Era, Summer 1866–November 1866

Christopher B. Bean

in Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.003.0005
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter examines the Bureau’s expansion and renewal. Kiddoo could now offer agents salaries. Kiddoo shied from those with no military experience, believing those with martial experience more ... More


The Bureau’s Highwater Mark: The J. B. Kiddoo Era, November 1866–January 1867

Christopher B. Bean

in Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.003.0006
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

The Bureau’s apex is chronicled here. It became a true bureaucracy: numerous paperwork and, at times, inefficiency. Agents discovered this firsthand. It chronicles the domestic issues brought for ... More


“They must vote with the party that shed their blood … in giving them liberty”: Bureau Agents, Politics, and the Bureau’s New Order: The Charles Griffin Era, January 1867–Summer 1867

Christopher B. Bean

in Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.003.0007
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter begins the tenure of the agency’s third head, Charles Griffin. Griffin oversaw a reinvigorated agency after Congress wrested Reconstruction from the president. Buoyed by this, the agency ... More


Violence, Frustration, and Yellow Fever: The Charles Griffin Era, Summer–Fall 1867

Christopher B. Bean

in Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.003.0008
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter chronicles the denouement of Griffin’s tenure. What ended his time in Texas brought great hardship upon subordinates in the field—yellow fever. The disease not only killed the Bureau ... More


General Orders No. 40 and the Freedmen’s Bureau’s End: The J. J. Reynolds Era, September 1867–December 1868

Christopher B. Bean

in Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.003.0009
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

The Bureau’s end is in this chapter. Overseeing its demise in Texas was J. J. Reynolds. Reynolds appointed the second most field personnel and the most with military service. The length of tenures ... More


A Survey of Philanthropic Society Activity at Port Royal

Kevin Dougherty

in The Port Royal Experiment: A Case Study in Development

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9781628461534
eISBN:
9781626740822
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Mississippi
DOI:
10.14325/mississippi/9781628461534.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

Part of Edward Pierce’s plan was to send missionaries and teachers to assist the development of the Sea Islands blacks. Existing religious and abolitionist organizations took up the cause, and in ... More


Refugees and Families

Kevin Dougherty

in The Port Royal Experiment: A Case Study in Development

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9781628461534
eISBN:
9781626740822
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Mississippi
DOI:
10.14325/mississippi/9781628461534.003.0007
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

The Port Royal Experiment was beset by the displacement of the local black population as a result of the sudden collapse of the slavocracy and refugees, many of whom came to the Sea Islands in the ... More


The Subassistant Commissioners in Texas

Christopher B. Bean

in Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.003.0010
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter summarizes various conclusions in previous chapters. The average agent in Texas was generally mature and of northern birth, from the middle and upper middle class and with some military ... More


Rising from the Ashes

William A. Penn

in Kentucky Rebel Town: The Civil War Battles of Cynthiana and Harrison County

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780813167718
eISBN:
9780813168777
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813167718.003.0012
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter describes the impact of the Civil War on the Cynthiana and Harrison County, Ky. Subjects include: War claims submitted by attorney William S. Haviland; a duel between a former Yankee and ... More


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