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How to Improve Bayesian Reasoning without Instruction

Gerd Gigerenzer

in Adaptive Thinking: Rationality in the Real World

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195153729
eISBN:
9780199849222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195153729.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter defines the concepts of natural sampling, natural frequencies, and reports experimental evidence for the impact of various external representations on statistical thinking. The mental ... More


How to Make Cognitive Illusions Disappear

Gerd Gigerenzer

in Adaptive Thinking: Rationality in the Real World

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195153729
eISBN:
9780199849222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195153729.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Cognitive illusions have been linked to perceptual illusions, suggesting that they are “inevitable illusions”. This chapter criticizes the narrow norms that make humans look irrational and shows how ... More


Scientific Objectivity

Jan Sprenger and Stephan Hartmann

in Bayesian Philosophy of Science

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780199672110
eISBN:
9780191881671
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199672110.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Subjective Bayesianism is often criticized for a lack of objectivity: (i) it opens the door to the influence of values and biases, (ii) evidence judgments can vary substantially between scientists, ... More


Clinical Judgment

Marcel Boumans

in Science Outside the Laboratory: Measurement in Field Science and Economics

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199388288
eISBN:
9780199388318
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199388288.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Judgment is needed as an additional source of knowledge in measurement. This chapter aims to clarify what kind of judgment is referred to and what it is not. Judgment is defined in the Kantian sense; ... More


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