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Freedwomen and the Freedmen's Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation

Mary J. Farmer-Kaiser

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823232116
eISBN:
9780823234943
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823232116.001.0001
Subject:
History, Social History

Established by Congress in early 1865, the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands—more commonly known as “the Freedmen's Bureau”—assumed the Herculean task of overseeing ... More


Educational Reconstruction

Hilary Green

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780823270118
eISBN:
9780823270156
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823270118.001.0001
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This study examines the ways in which black Richmonders, black Mobilians and their white allies created, developed and sustained a system of African American schools following the Civil War. As ... More


Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Christopher B. Bean

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.001.0001
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

In its brief seven-year existence, the Freedmen’s Bureau became the epicenter of the debate about Reconstruction. Cognizant of its responsibilities, partisans fiercely debated its necessity. ... More


Introduction: “a long time in want of a bureau”

Mary Farmer-Kaiser

in Freedwomen and the Freedmen's Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823232116
eISBN:
9780823234943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823232116.003.0001
Subject:
History, Social History

Congress established the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands—more commonly known as the Freedmen's Bureau—in March 1865. Upon its creation, the short-lived and ... More


“that the freedwomen … may rise to the dignity and glory of true womanhood”: The Men, Purpose, and Gendered Freedom of the Freedmen's Bureau

Mary Farmer-Kaiser

in Freedwomen and the Freedmen's Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823232116
eISBN:
9780823234943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823232116.003.0002
Subject:
History, Social History

The realization of policy of the Freedmen's Bureau rested foremost on its officials at the local level. Using the gospel of free labor as the platform, bureau officials and ... More


“a weight of circumstances like millstones about their necks to drag and keep them down”: Freedwomen, Federal Relief, and the Freedmen's Bureau

Mary Farmer-Kaiser

in Freedwomen and the Freedmen's Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823232116
eISBN:
9780823234943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823232116.003.0003
Subject:
History, Social History

In the immediate post-emancipation South, the Freedmen's Bureau limited its federal relief activities to temporarily aiding former slaves and loyal white refugees with rations ... More


“the women are the controlling spirits”: Freedwomen, Free Labor, the Freedme's Bureau

Mary Farmer-Kaiser

in Freedwomen and the Freedmen's Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823232116
eISBN:
9780823234943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823232116.003.0004
Subject:
History, Social History

In their efforts to transform the South into a free labor society, officials of the Freedmen's Bureau encountered an employment landscape complicated greatly by issues of ... More


“to put forth almost superhuman efforts to regain their children”: Freedwomen, Parental Rights, and the Freedmen's Bureau

Mary Farmer-Kaiser

in Freedwomen and the Freedmen's Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823232116
eISBN:
9780823234943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823232116.003.0005
Subject:
History, Social History

Emancipation and the legal recognition of the African-American family that it conferred had granted, at least in theory, black parents the right to claim and control their own ... More


“strict justice for every man, woman, and child”: Gender, Justice, and the Freedmen's Bureau

Mary Farmer-Kaiser

in Freedwomen and the Freedmen's Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823232116
eISBN:
9780823234943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823232116.003.0006
Subject:
History, Social History

Operating at best with a belief that freedmen and women required “a guardian rather than a jailor or hangman”, Freedmen's Bureau officials worked not only to defend the rights ... More


Conclusion: “the unpardonable sin”

Mary Farmer-Kaiser

in Freedwomen and the Freedmen's Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823232116
eISBN:
9780823234943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823232116.003.0007
Subject:
History, Social History

With varying degrees of success, African-American women encountered, trusted, challenged, and used the Freedmen's Bureau in their efforts to shape the outcome of emancipation. ... More


Remaking the Former Confederate Capital: Black Richmonders and the Transition to Public Schools, 1865–1870

Hilary Green

in Educational Reconstruction

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780823270118
eISBN:
9780823270156
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823270118.003.0002
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter traces black Richmonders’ efforts to define the meaning of freedom and citizenship through the African American schoolhouse. Through a network of educational partnerships, black ... More


No Longer Slaves: Black Mobilians and the Hard Struggle for Schools, 1865–1870

Hilary Green

in Educational Reconstruction

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780823270118
eISBN:
9780823270156
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823270118.003.0003
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter explores black Mobilians’ hard struggle for the African American education after Confederate defeat. Intense white opposition led by Josiah Nott, arson, and antagonisms with Creoles of ... More


Epilogue: The Blair Education Bill and the Death of Educational Reconstruction, 1890

Hilary Green

in Educational Reconstruction

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780823270118
eISBN:
9780823270156
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823270118.003.0010
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter explores the demise of the Educational Reconstruction and the opening of another phase in African American education with the failed Blair Education Bill. This federal funding bill would ... More


Introduction

Christopher B. Bean

in Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.003.0001
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter briefly chronicles the genesis of the Freedmen’s Bureau and its vague mandate. This vagueness ultimately allowed field agents to improvise and adapt as circumstances developed. A very ... More


“A Stranger Amongst Strangers”: Who Were the Subassistant Commissioners?

Christopher B. Bean

in Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.003.0002
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter examines the 239 subassistant commissioners. Although brief vignettes of the more notable agents exist, the majority of the chapter comprises graphs and charts of the agents’ ages, ... More


“The Post of Greatest Peril”: The E. M. Gregory Era, September 1865–April 1866

Christopher B. Bean

in Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.003.0003
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter examines the brief, yet formative, tenure of the Texas Bureau’s first assistant commissioner, E. M. Gregory. It chronicles the appointment of the first subassistant commissioners, ... More


Conservative Phoenix: The J. B. Kiddoo Era, May 1866–Summer 1866

Christopher B. Bean

in Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter examines the beginning of the J. B. Kiddoo tenure. It begins with the beneficial and adverse effects Kiddoo’s new policy has on subordinates. He focuses subordinates to greater attention ... More


Bureau Expansion, Bureau Courts, and the Black Code: The J. B. Kiddoo Era, Summer 1866–November 1866

Christopher B. Bean

in Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.003.0005
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter examines the Bureau’s expansion and renewal. Kiddoo could now offer agents salaries. Kiddoo shied from those with no military experience, believing those with martial experience more ... More


The Bureau’s Highwater Mark: The J. B. Kiddoo Era, November 1866–January 1867

Christopher B. Bean

in Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.003.0006
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

The Bureau’s apex is chronicled here. It became a true bureaucracy: numerous paperwork and, at times, inefficiency. Agents discovered this firsthand. It chronicles the domestic issues brought for ... More


“They must vote with the party that shed their blood … in giving them liberty”: Bureau Agents, Politics, and the Bureau’s New Order: The Charles Griffin Era, January 1867–Summer 1867

Christopher B. Bean

in Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.003.0007
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter begins the tenure of the agency’s third head, Charles Griffin. Griffin oversaw a reinvigorated agency after Congress wrested Reconstruction from the president. Buoyed by this, the agency ... More


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