This chapter discusses a new twist to an old pollution source. According to Kemp, “Poultry CAFOs are making a push into North Carolina because they've been basically regulated out of other states.” Up on the Chesapeake Bay, regulators have cracked down on mass livestock operations, so they're moving down into North Carolina, where they are not regulated. Kemp explains: “The poultry farms are what they call ‘deemed permitted,’ so if you build a poultry farm, it is considered to be permitted without any permitting process at all.” Like many aspects of private enterprise, the distinction comes down to a technicality: Poultry farms produce a so-called dry litter rather than the wet litter of the hog operations. In the real life of the river, that distinction may not make much difference.
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