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On the margins of inclusionChanging labour markets and social exclusion in London$
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David M. Smith

Print publication date: 2005

Print ISBN-13: 9781861346018

Published to University Press Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1332/policypress/9781861346018.001.0001

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date: 17 August 2017

Informal opportunities and social divisions

Informal opportunities and social divisions

Chapter:
(p.143) Seven Informal opportunities and social divisions
Source:
On the margins of inclusion
Author(s):

David M. Smith

Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:10.1332/policypress/9781861346018.003.0007

This chapter investigates the magnitude of paid informal work and estimates of its scale, which have remained relatively constant since the early 1980s, ranging from 6 percent to 8 percent of GDP, despite fundamental changes in the economy and labour market over this period. It notes that Harding and Jenkins point out that a lack of regulation has been the historical norm, and changes in institutional boundaries and regulations cause a corresponding realignment of formal/informal relationships. It also examines factors based in the local economic structure, and the internal factors based in the estate's social composition that sustain demand for informal labour, goods, and services. It points out that what matters is not how many people or firms participate in informal working practices, but how those practices operate on the fringes of, yet inseparable from, the wider economy. It also explores why the informal economy works for some and not for others, and how the responses of people to a series of wider economic changes and employment insecurity draw upon resources based in localised forms of knowledge and relationships.

Keywords:   informal work, Harding, informal relationships, local economic structure, informal labour, informal economy, employment insecurity

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