This chapter begins by identifying the main goal of the research project Inclusion through Participation (INPART) which was to explain the inclusionary and exclusionary potentials of various types of work. It notes that this objective was formulated against the background of a growing concern in social policy debates and social policy practices with the issue of ‘activation’. It enumerates the six EU countries involved in the project INPART — Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the UK. It discusses that the countries involved in INPART reveal significant differences with respect to the ‘activation’ characteristics of their social policies. Thus, the role of the state in making social policies more active differs according to each country involved in the project. It explores the themes of integration/differentiation and inclusion/exclusion across policy debate and scientific discourse.
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