Child maltreatment is an umbrella term that incorporates various forms of abuse and neglect and also a broader range of experiences of violence and victimisation. Among experiences of maltreatment by a parent or guardian, neglect is the most common, followed by physical abuse, emotional abuse and then sexual abuse. Many children also experience maltreatment by non-resident adults, sibling victimisation, intimate partner abuse, community violence and bullying. Retrospective self-report data does not indicate increases in experiences of child maltreatment between 1999 and 2009. Rates of child protection registration have risen substantially since 2010 and there has also been an increase in rates of recorded sexual offences. It is not clear whether these trends stem from an increase in occurrence or an increase in recognition. There has been a long-term decline in violent death in infancy and middle childhood. Bullying is a very important issue for children. Many children experience bullying at school, by siblings and online, and there is growing evidence of its negative impacts in childhood and also its long-term repercussions in adulthood.
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