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Acts of Mathematical Creation

Paul Erickson

in The World the Game theorists Made

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226097039
eISBN:
9780226097206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226097206.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Despite the ex post facto identification of a number of “anticipations” of game-theoretic results through history, it is generally agreed that modern game theory’s founding work was mathematician ... More


Quantum Mechanics: An Empiricist View

Bas C. van Fraassen

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198239802
eISBN:
9780191597466
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198239807.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Quantum theory was developed in response to a welter of new experimental phenomena, yet appeared to depict a world so esoteric as to be literally unimaginable. Interpretation of the theory became ... More


Theoretical Neuroscience: The Brain as a Computer and the Computer as a Brain

Gordon M. Shepherd

in Creating Modern Neuroscience: The Revolutionary 1950s

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195391503
eISBN:
9780199863464
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195391503.003.0016
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter focuses on the development of theoretical neuroscience. The mid-20th century marked the emergence of several new fields that laid the foundations for general theories of brain function. ... More


Game Theory

ROBERT V. DODGE

in Schelling's Game Theory: How to Make Decisions

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199857203
eISBN:
9780199932597
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199857203.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Behavioural Economics

This chapter formally introduces game theory. It provides a simple definition as the study of interactive decision-making by rational decision makers. Game theory is a formal study of vicarious ... More


The Martians of Science: Five Physicists Who Changed the Twentieth Century

István Hargittai

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195178456
eISBN:
9780199787012
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195178456.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

Five men born at the turn of the 20th century in Budapest: Theodore von Kármán, Leo Szilard, Eugene Wigner, John von Neumann, and Edward Teller, became a special group often referred to as the ... More


EDVAC and the First Draft

Thomas Haigh, Mark Priestley, and Crispin Rope

in Eniac in Action: Making and Remaking the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780262033985
eISBN:
9780262334426
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262033985.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter charts the rapid evolution of thinking about programming and computer architecture among members of the ENIAC team from 1944 onward, as what is usually called the “stored program ... More


Critique of the Standard Interpretation

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Quantum Mechanics: An Empiricist View

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198239802
eISBN:
9780191597466
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198239807.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Von Neumann's unification of Schroedinger's and Heisenberg's formalisms came with an interpretation of quantum theory involving two principles. The first is that assertions about the values of ... More


ENIAC Tries Its Luck

Thomas Haigh, Mark Priestley, and Crispin Rope

in Eniac in Action: Making and Remaking the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780262033985
eISBN:
9780262334426
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262033985.003.0010
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

As soon as Metropolis had completed the initial configuration of ENIAC for the new programming method, and before it was working properly, Klara von Neumann arrived to help. She had taken the leading ... More


 Fighting It Out

Ken Binmore

in Playing for Real: Game Theory

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780195300574
eISBN:
9780199783748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195300574.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

This chapter describes the theory of two-person, zero-sum games invented by John Von Neumann in 1928. It begins with an application to the computation of economic shadow prices. It shows that a ... More


:: Initial Atmospheric Conditions: Scientific Goals, Civilian Manpower, and Military Funding (1944–1948)

Kristine C. Harper

in Weather by the Numbers: The Genesis of Modern Meteorology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262083782
eISBN:
9780262274982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262083782.003.0005
Subject:
Society and Culture, Technology and Society

Carl-Gustav Rossby and his colleagues shared one overriding scientific goal—to pursue basic meteorological research aimed at developing a mathematics-based theory of general circulation—which became ... More


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