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Acts of Mathematical Creation

Paul Erickson

in The World the Game theorists Made

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226097039
eISBN:
9780226097206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226097206.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Despite the ex post facto identification of a number of “anticipations” of game-theoretic results through history, it is generally agreed that modern game theory’s founding work was mathematician ... More


Quantum Mechanics: An Empiricist View

Bas C. van Fraassen

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198239802
eISBN:
9780191597466
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198239807.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Quantum theory was developed in response to a welter of new experimental phenomena, yet appeared to depict a world so esoteric as to be literally unimaginable. Interpretation of the theory became ... More


Theoretical Neuroscience: The Brain as a Computer and the Computer as a Brain

Gordon M. Shepherd

in Creating Modern Neuroscience: The Revolutionary 1950s

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195391503
eISBN:
9780199863464
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195391503.003.0016
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter focuses on the development of theoretical neuroscience. The mid-20th century marked the emergence of several new fields that laid the foundations for general theories of brain function. ... More


Game Theory

ROBERT V. DODGE

in Schelling's Game Theory: How to Make Decisions

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199857203
eISBN:
9780199932597
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199857203.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Behavioural Economics

This chapter formally introduces game theory. It provides a simple definition as the study of interactive decision-making by rational decision makers. Game theory is a formal study of vicarious ... More


The Martians of Science: Five Physicists Who Changed the Twentieth Century

István Hargittai

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195178456
eISBN:
9780199787012
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195178456.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

Five men born at the turn of the 20th century in Budapest: Theodore von Kármán, Leo Szilard, Eugene Wigner, John von Neumann, and Edward Teller, became a special group often referred to as the ... More


EDVAC and the First Draft

Thomas Haigh, Mark Priestley, and Crispin Rope

in Eniac in Action: Making and Remaking the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780262033985
eISBN:
9780262334426
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262033985.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter charts the rapid evolution of thinking about programming and computer architecture among members of the ENIAC team from 1944 onward, as what is usually called the “stored program ... More


Critique of the Standard Interpretation

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Quantum Mechanics: An Empiricist View

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198239802
eISBN:
9780191597466
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198239807.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Von Neumann's unification of Schroedinger's and Heisenberg's formalisms came with an interpretation of quantum theory involving two principles. The first is that assertions about the values of ... More


ENIAC Tries Its Luck

Thomas Haigh, Mark Priestley, and Crispin Rope

in Eniac in Action: Making and Remaking the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780262033985
eISBN:
9780262334426
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262033985.003.0010
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

As soon as Metropolis had completed the initial configuration of ENIAC for the new programming method, and before it was working properly, Klara von Neumann arrived to help. She had taken the leading ... More


 Fighting It Out

Ken Binmore

in Playing for Real: Game Theory

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780195300574
eISBN:
9780199783748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195300574.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

This chapter describes the theory of two-person, zero-sum games invented by John Von Neumann in 1928. It begins with an application to the computation of economic shadow prices. It shows that a ... More


:: Initial Atmospheric Conditions: Scientific Goals, Civilian Manpower, and Military Funding (1944–1948)

Kristine C. Harper

in Weather by the Numbers: The Genesis of Modern Meteorology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262083782
eISBN:
9780262274982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262083782.003.0005
Subject:
Society and Culture, Technology and Society

Carl-Gustav Rossby and his colleagues shared one overriding scientific goal—to pursue basic meteorological research aimed at developing a mathematics-based theory of general circulation—which became ... More


ENIAC Goes to Monte Carlo

Thomas Haigh, Mark Priestley, and Crispin Rope

in Eniac in Action: Making and Remaking the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780262033985
eISBN:
9780262334426
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262033985.003.0009
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Traces the series of Monte Carlo simulations run on ENIAC from their genesis in January 1947 exchanges between John von Neumann, Robert Richtmyer, and Stanislaw Ulam through the completion of ... More


Creating Insight: Gestalt Theory and the Early Computer

David Bates

in Genesis Redux: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Artificial Life

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226720807
eISBN:
9780226720838
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226720838.003.0012
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter questions the underlying assumptions of both classic Artificial Intelligence, founded in the analogy between the brain and the digital computer, and the newer tradition that construes ... More


Sets and classes

Graham Priest

in Beyond the Limits of Thought

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199254057
eISBN:
9780191698194
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199254057.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter examines the relevance of theories on sets and classes to the contradictions in the limits of thought. It analyses possible solutions to the set-theoretic paradoxes based on Ernst ... More


Cybernetics and the New Complexity of Machines

John Johnston

in The Allure of Machinic Life: Cybernetics, Artificial Life, and the New AI

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262101264
eISBN:
9780262276351
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262101264.003.0002
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

This chapter makes a case for the fundamental complexity of cybernetic machines as a new species of automata, existing both “in the metal and in the flesh,” to use Norbert Wiener’s expression, as ... More


Converting ENIAC

Thomas Haigh, Mark Priestley, and Crispin Rope

in Eniac in Action: Making and Remaking the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780262033985
eISBN:
9780262334426
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262033985.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

In spring 1947 a project was launched to convert ENIAC to run code written in the new from introduced with the 1945 “First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC.” This was intertwined with the planning of ... More


The Expected Utility Theory and Measurement Theory of von Neumann and Morgenstern, 1944–1947

Ivan Moscati

in Measuring Utility: From the Marginal Revolution to Behavioral Economics

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
December 2018
ISBN:
9780199372768
eISBN:
9780199372805
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199372768.003.0010
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

Chapter 9 discusses the axiomatic version of expected utility theory (EUT), a theory of decision-making under risk, put forward by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern in their book Theory of Games ... More


Faith and Fight

Anthony Chaney

in Runaway: Gregory Bateson, the Double Bind, and the Rise of Ecological Consciousness

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9781469631738
eISBN:
9781469631752
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469631738.003.0005
Subject:
History, Environmental History

This chapter explores double-bind theory and the concept of power, including the sexist tendency among proponents to blame the mother. Similarly, radicals, liberals, and secular existentialists ... More


Vital Cells: Cellular Automata, Artificial Life, Autopoiesis

John Johnston

in The Allure of Machinic Life: Cybernetics, Artificial Life, and the New AI

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262101264
eISBN:
9780262276351
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262101264.003.0005
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

This chapter examines John von Neumann’s theory of self-reproducing automata and Christopher Langton’s self-reproducing digital loops. Langton’s theory of artificial life (ALife) as a new science ... More


Eniac in Action: Making and Remaking the Modern Computer

Thomas Haigh, Mark Priestley, and Crispin Rope

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780262033985
eISBN:
9780262334426
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262033985.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This book explores the conception, design, construction, use, and afterlife of ENIAC, the first general purpose digital electronic computer. ENIAC was created and tested at the University of ... More


The Brain Works by Logic

James A. Anderson

in After Digital: Computation as Done by Brains and Machines

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
February 2018
ISBN:
9780199357789
eISBN:
9780190675264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199357789.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Brains and computers were twins separated at birth. In 1943, it was known that action potentials were all or none, approximating TRUE or FALSE. In that year, Walter Pitts and Warren McCulloch wrote a ... More


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