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Linking sequence to function in drug design with ancestral sequence reconstruction

Janos T. Kodra, Marie Skovgaard, Dennis Madsen, and David A. Liberles

in Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199299188
eISBN:
9780191714979
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299188.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Many bioactive peptides and proteins of pharmaceutical interest are found in animal venoms. Nature often reuses scaffolds within protein frameworks to develop new properties. The binding core of the ... More


Your Brain’s Anchor to Reality

Gary L. Wenk

in Your Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195388541
eISBN:
9780199863587
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388541.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic

The consumption of many different plants by our ancestors lead to the discovery of the important role played by the neurotransmitter serotonin in your brain. Chemicals in these plants that interfere ... More


When the Immune System Is the Problem, Not the Solution: Hypersensitivity and Allergy

William R. Clark

in In Defense of Self: How the Immune System Really Works

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195336634
eISBN:
9780199868568
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195336634.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

As scientists looked ever more closely at the immune system during the first half of the 20th century, it became apparent that in a number of situations exposure to a foreign antigen did not lead to ... More


Secondary defences

Graeme D. Ruxton, Thomas N. Sherratt, and Michael P. Speed

in Avoiding Attack: The Evolutionary Ecology of Crypsis, Warning Signals and Mimicry

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198528609
eISBN:
9780191713392
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528609.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Secondary defences act after predators have successfully detected and recognized prey; they seek to dissuade the predator from attacking and/or increase the likelihood of the prey surviving the ... More


About Method: Experimenters, Snake Venom, and the History of Writing Scientifically

Jutta Schickore

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780226449982
eISBN:
9780226450049
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226450049.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

About Method: Experimenters, Snake Venom, and the History of Writing Scientifically is a long-term history of scientists’ methodological discussions about experimentation in the life sciences. It ... More


Friend and enemy

Neal Curtis

in Sovereignty and Superheroes

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780719085048
eISBN:
9781526104434
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719085048.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, UK Politics

This chapter analyses another very important couplet in the theory of sovereignty, namely the distinction that is drawn between the friend and the enemy. Although Schmitt argued this was necessary in ... More


To Salivate Is Not to Speak, as Boring as Watching Dust

Kaira M. Cabañas

in Off-Screen Cinema: Isidore Isou and the Lettrist Avant-Garde

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780226174457
eISBN:
9780226174624
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226174624.003.0001
Subject:
Literature, Film, Media, and Cultural Studies

This chapter studies Isidore Isou's Traité de bave et d' éternité (On Venom and Eternity), which premiered on April 20, 1951. By using Lettrist poetry as part of the film sound track's experimental ... More


Introduction

Kaira M. Cabañas

in Off-Screen Cinema: Isidore Isou and the Lettrist Avant-Garde

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780226174457
eISBN:
9780226174624
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226174624.003.0006
Subject:
Literature, Film, Media, and Cultural Studies

This book examines the core Lettrist films produced by Isidore Isou, Maurice Lemaître, Gil J Wolman, François Dufrêne, and Guy Debord in the years 1951–1952. In the film Traité de bave et d'éternité ... More


Consumed by Hellfire: Demonic Possession and the Limits of the Superhuman in the 1980s

Ramzi Fawaz

in New Mutants: Superheroes and the Radical Imagination of American Comics

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9781479814336
eISBN:
9781479840021
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9781479814336.003.0006
Subject:
Society and Culture, Media Studies

Chapter 6 explores the trope of demonic possession in mainstream superhero comics of the 1980s, when iconic heroes found themselves possessed by magical or alien forces that caused them to lose ... More


Many, Many Experiments

Jutta Schickore

in About Method: Experimenters, Snake Venom, and the History of Writing Scientifically

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780226449982
eISBN:
9780226450049
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226450049.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

In the mid-seventeenth century, experiments on snake venom were conducted within the larger contexts of discussions about body functions and the nature of disease; about blood, its role in the body, ... More


Trying Again

Jutta Schickore

in About Method: Experimenters, Snake Venom, and the History of Writing Scientifically

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780226449982
eISBN:
9780226450049
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226450049.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The continuation of the dispute between Redi and Charas brought methodological issues to the fore. The chapter shows that while both investigators were experimentalists, they had quite different ... More


Newtonian Poison

Jutta Schickore

in About Method: Experimenters, Snake Venom, and the History of Writing Scientifically

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780226449982
eISBN:
9780226450049
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226450049.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Richard Mead’s Mechanical Account of Poisons includes a study of viper venom as well as a critical commentary on Redi and Charas. The several editions of Mead’s Mechanical Account showcase the state ... More


Experiment as the Only Guide

Jutta Schickore

in About Method: Experimenters, Snake Venom, and the History of Writing Scientifically

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780226449982
eISBN:
9780226450049
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226450049.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Felice Fontana’s Treatise on the Venom of the Viper; on the American Poisons; and on the Cherry Laurel, and some other Vegetable Poisons is considered a milestone in venom research. Throughout the ... More


Thousands of Experiments

Jutta Schickore

in About Method: Experimenters, Snake Venom, and the History of Writing Scientifically

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780226449982
eISBN:
9780226450049
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226450049.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Fontana’s renewed engagement with the subject of viper venom resulted in a massive study of more than 600 pages. Book II of the Treatise on the Venom of the Viper produced a new interpretation of the ... More


Practical Criticisms

Jutta Schickore

in About Method: Experimenters, Snake Venom, and the History of Writing Scientifically

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780226449982
eISBN:
9780226450049
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226450049.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The physician and literary writer Silas Weir Mitchell had a long-standing interest in venom research, spanning the second half of the nineteenth century. Mitchell’s work showcases the dynamics of ... More


Controlling Experiment

Jutta Schickore

in About Method: Experimenters, Snake Venom, and the History of Writing Scientifically

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780226449982
eISBN:
9780226450049
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226450049.003.0009
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

In the 1880s, venom served as a means to explore specific body functions, and the changes thus produced were recorded with novel kinds of recording devices. Venom was tested systematically with a ... More


Unobservables

Jutta Schickore

in About Method: Experimenters, Snake Venom, and the History of Writing Scientifically

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780226449982
eISBN:
9780226450049
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226450049.003.0010
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Simon Flexner and Hideyo Noguchi’s work discusses venom research from the perspective of immunology. They could draw on a much broader pool of resources than Mitchell had available—conceptual, ... More


Fragmentation and Modularity

Jutta Schickore

in About Method: Experimenters, Snake Venom, and the History of Writing Scientifically

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780226449982
eISBN:
9780226450049
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226450049.003.0011
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

In the early twentieth century, venom research migrated into the domain of protein and enzyme studies. Venom researchers consciously drew on new analytic techniques and approaches from research on ... More


The Symmetrical Battle between Drakōn and Slayer

Daniel Ogden

in Drakōn: Dragon Myth and Serpent Cult in the Greek and Roman Worlds

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199557325
eISBN:
9780191745997
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199557325.003.0007
Subject:
Classical Studies, Literary Studies: Classical, Early, and Medieval, Archaeology: Classical

Chapter 6 looks at the articulation of the battles themselves between man and drakōn. The battle narratives make appeal to an ideal schema, of which only limited parts are visible in individual ... More


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