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The Development of Scientific Language

Adrienne Lehrer

in Wine and Conversation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195307931
eISBN:
9780199867493
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195307931.003.0014
Subject:
Linguistics, Theoretical Linguistics

The treatment of language by philosophers has been biased toward scientific language, requiring precision in reference, denotation, and truth conditions. Scientific language, however, is special, and ... More


Not A Full‐fledged Speech Act?

Robert J. Stainton

in Words and Thoughts: Subsentences, Ellipsis, and the Philosophy of Language

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199250387
eISBN:
9780191719523
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199250387.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter considers various arguments that sub-sentence use might not rise to the level of a ‘full-fledged speech act’. Suggested necessary conditions included being a grammatical usage of a ... More


Discourse

Ronald W. Langacker

in Cognitive Grammar: A Basic Introduction

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195331967
eISBN:
9780199868209
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331967.003.0013
Subject:
Linguistics, Syntax and Morphology

A discourse consists of usage events, and in the usage based approach linguistic units are seen as being abstracted from such events. Discourse is fundamentally interactive and necessarily dynamic. ... More


Orientation

Ronald W. Langacker

in Cognitive Grammar: A Basic Introduction

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195331967
eISBN:
9780199868209
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331967.003.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Syntax and Morphology

Cognitive Grammar represents one approach to cognitive linguistics, which in turn belongs to the functionalist (as opposed to the formalist) tradition in linguistic theory. Its central claim is that ... More


The Mental Corpus: How language is represented in the mind

John R. Taylor

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199290802
eISBN:
9780191741388
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199290802.001.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Psycholinguistics / Neurolinguistics / Cognitive Linguistics

This book argues that knowledge of a language can be thought of as a mental corpus, that is, as a repository of memories of previous linguistic encounters with the language. Features of incoming ... More


Lowth's Own Usage and the Grammar's Norm of Correctness

Ingrid Tieken‐Boon van Ostade

in The Bishop's Grammar: Robert Lowth and the Rise of Prescriptivism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199579273
eISBN:
9780191595219
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199579273.003.0007
Subject:
Linguistics, Historical Linguistics, English Language

Lowth's awareness of grammatical appropriateness to context as determined by style and addressee. It links actual usage in the letters to the norm presented in the grammar, showing the fallacy of the ... More


Grammar and Vocabulary

Edwin L. Battistella

in Do You Make These Mistakes in English?: The Story of Sherwin Cody's Famous Language School

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195367126
eISBN:
9780199867356
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367126.003.0006
Subject:
Linguistics, English Language

Chapter 6 continues the survey of the self‐correcting course focusing on socially significant aspect of grammar, as well as vocabulary and reading. The chapter includes more sample material.


In Defense of the Saussurean View of Grammar

Frederick J. Newmeyer

in Possible and Probable Languages: A Generative Perspective on Linguistic Typology

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199274338
eISBN:
9780191706479
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199274338.003.0004
Subject:
Linguistics, Language Families

This chapter argues in favor of the classical Saussurean position with respect to the relationship between knowledge of language and use of language, providing evidence in support of the idea that ... More


Singapore English

David Deterding

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780748625444
eISBN:
9780748651535
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748625444.001.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, English Language

Over the past few decades, Singapore English has been emerging as an independent variety of English with its own distinct style of pronunciation, grammar and word usage. This book provides an ... More


Stephanus of Byzantium’s Vocabulary

P. M. Fraser

in Greek Ethnic Terminology

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780197264287
eISBN:
9780191753978
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264287.003.0014
Subject:
Classical Studies, Literary Studies: Classical, Early, and Medieval

The text of the Epitome of Stephanus contains no preliminary statement of principle regarding grammatical rules for individual ethnics, and although reference may be made under individual ethnics to ... More


Overview

Adele Goldberg

in Constructions at Work: The Nature of Generalization in Language

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199268511
eISBN:
9780191708428
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199268511.003.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Theoretical Linguistics

Observations about particular linguistic constructions have shaped our understanding of both particular languages and the nature of language itself. But only recently has a new theoretical approach ... More


Item-specific knowledge and generalizations

Adele Goldberg

in Constructions at Work: The Nature of Generalization in Language

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199268511
eISBN:
9780191708428
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199268511.003.0003
Subject:
Linguistics, Theoretical Linguistics

Language contains both large generalizations and idiosyncratic facts, and therefore we unavoidably find those who favour lumping and those who favour splitting. The constructionist approach to ... More


Rules and Restrictions

Ronald W. Langacker

in Cognitive Grammar: A Basic Introduction

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195331967
eISBN:
9780199868209
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331967.003.0008
Subject:
Linguistics, Syntax and Morphology

Language is both cognitive and sociocultural, consisting in conventionally sanctioned patterns of communicative activity. These patterns take the form of schemas abstracted from usage events by the ... More


Bad Grammar

Edwin L. Battistella

in Bad Language: Are Some Words Better than Others?

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195172485
eISBN:
9780199788187
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172485.003.0003
Subject:
Linguistics, English Language

This chapter examines traditional grammar, attitudes toward grammar, and the correctionist approach to usage. It argues for the importance of knowing Standard English critically, analytically, and in ... More


Images and Engagement

Edwin L. Battistella

in Bad Language: Are Some Words Better than Others?

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195172485
eISBN:
9780199788187
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172485.003.0007
Subject:
Linguistics, English Language

This chapter has three main goals. First, it consolidates and revisits some of the common objections to so-called bad language. Second, it summarizes the key images about language that arise in much ... More


Basil of Caesarea I: On Not Knowing God's Essence (But Still Knowing God)

Andrew Radde‐Gallwitz

in Basil of Caesarea, Gregory of Nyssa, and the Transformation of Divine Simplicity

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199574117
eISBN:
9780191722110
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574117.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, Early Christian Studies, Theology

Chapter 5 is the first of two chapters on Basil of Caesarea. It has two principal sections. First, it outlines Basil's views about religious language generally. For Basil, theological terms applied ... More


The Political Parish and 1648

Nicholas Hope

in German and Scandinavian Protestantism 1700-1918

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198269946
eISBN:
9780191600647
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198269943.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Church History

Deals with attempts to impose religious uniformity on the bizarre parish order created by historical accident and custom since the Reformation. This was frozen by the Westphalian peace, and its ethos ... More


The Grammar and the Rise of Prescriptivism

Ingrid Tieken‐Boon van Ostade

in The Bishop's Grammar: Robert Lowth and the Rise of Prescriptivism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199579273
eISBN:
9780191595219
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199579273.003.0008
Subject:
Linguistics, Historical Linguistics, English Language

As a normative grammar, and with its critical footnotes, Lowth's grammar heralds the next stage in the English standardisation process. It anticipates the rise of the usage guide in the next decades ... More


Conclusion

Ingrid Tieken‐Boon van Ostade

in The Bishop's Grammar: Robert Lowth and the Rise of Prescriptivism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199579273
eISBN:
9780191595219
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199579273.003.0009
Subject:
Linguistics, Historical Linguistics, English Language

The undue persistence of Lowth's prescriptiveness, his language being that of an ordinary educated writer, his popularity and influence at the time, the grammar's innovative features, and his full ... More


Language Universals and Usage-Based Theory

Joan Bybee

in Language Universals

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195305432
eISBN:
9780199866953
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195305432.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures

This chapter discusses the usage-based theory of language. It argues that from this perspective there are very few synchronic universals in the sense of features that can be found in all languages. ... More


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