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Do Elephants Have Knees? And Other Stories of Darwinian Origins

Charles R., Jr. Ault

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9781501704673
eISBN:
9781501705861
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501704673.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Thinking whimsically makes serious science accessible. That's a message that should be taken to heart by all readers who want to learn about evolution. This book invites readers into serious ... More


How Vertebrates Left the Water

Michel Laurin

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520266476
eISBN:
9780520947986
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520266476.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

More than three hundred million years ago—a relatively recent date in the two billion years since life first appeared—vertebrate animals first ventured onto land. This illustrated book describes how ... More


Bone Histology of Fossil Tetrapods: Advancing Methods, Analysis, and Interpretation

Kevin Padian and Ellen-Therese Lamm (eds)

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780520273528
eISBN:
9780520955110
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520273528.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Paleontology

The microscopic examination of fossilized bone tissue is a sophisticated and increasingly important analytical tool for understanding the life history of ancient organisms. This book provides an ... More


Introduction: On Becoming Aquatic

J. G. M. Thewissen and Sirpa Nummela

in Sensory Evolution on the Threshold: Adaptations in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520252783
eISBN:
9780520934122
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520252783.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Vertebrates have become secondarily aquatic many times in their evolution. Many vertebrates moved from land to water and evolved adaptations to their transitional habitats. This introductory chapter ... More


Structure and Function of the Retina in Aquatic Tetrapods

Tom Reuter and Leo Peichl

in Sensory Evolution on the Threshold: Adaptations in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520252783
eISBN:
9780520934122
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520252783.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter discusses the anatomy and physiology of the retina in aquatic tetrapods. It focuses on the input and output stages of retinal processing: the photoreceptors and the ganglion cells. It ... More


Comparative Anatomy and Function of Hearing in Aquatic Amphibians, Reptiles, and Birds

Thomas Hetherington

in Sensory Evolution on the Threshold: Adaptations in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520252783
eISBN:
9780520934122
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520252783.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter discusses the structure and function of hearing in aquatic amphibians, reptiles, and birds. It examines patterns of evolutionary change in the auditory systems of amphibians, reptiles, ... More


Electroreception

Lon A. Wilkens and Michael H. Hofmann

in Sensory Evolution on the Threshold: Adaptations in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520252783
eISBN:
9780520934122
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520252783.003.0020
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter discusses electoreception in aquatic tetrapods. It gives a brief overview of the physics of electroreception, and then identifies aquatic tetrapods with electrosense abilities. It also ... More


Toward an Integrative Approach

J. G. M. Thewissen and Sirpa Nummela

in Sensory Evolution on the Threshold: Adaptations in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520252783
eISBN:
9780520934122
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520252783.003.0021
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter presents an example of an integrative approach to the study of sensory evolution. It focuses on the sensory evolution of cetaceans, a group of mammals that moved from land to water ... More


Conquest of Land: Data from Extant Vertebrates

Michel Laurin

in How Vertebrates Left the Water

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520266476
eISBN:
9780520947986
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520266476.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter describes the extant taxa most relevant to studies about the conquest of land by vertebrates: the coelacanth and the dipnoans (lungfishes), the closest relatives of tetrapods. It begins ... More


The Chemical Stimulus and Its Detection

Heather L. Eisthen and Kurt Schwenk

in Sensory Evolution on the Threshold: Adaptations in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520252783
eISBN:
9780520934122
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520252783.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Tetrapods have three chemosensory organs: a gustatory organ, an olfactory organ, and a vomeronasal organ. These chemosensory organs detect sets of chemical stimuli with differing behavioral ... More


Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of Vision in Aquatic Tetrapods

Ronald H. H. Kröger and Gadi Katzir

in Sensory Evolution on the Threshold: Adaptations in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520252783
eISBN:
9780520934122
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520252783.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter discusses the structure of a typical tetrapod eye and some of the accessory structures that have important roles in vision function. It analyzes the functional differences of vision in ... More


A Lungfish Walked into the Zoo: On the Origin of Limbs from Lobe-Fins

Charles R. Ault

in Do Elephants Have Knees? And Other Stories of Darwinian Origins

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9781501704673
eISBN:
9781501705861
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501704673.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses the origin of limbs from lobe-fins. The legacy of limb fossils tells of fins turning into feet in tandem with the history of swim bladders becoming lungs. Fish Is Fish by Leo ... More


The Amphibian Foothold

Frank H. T. Rhodes

in Origins: The Search for Our Prehistoric Past

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9781501702440
eISBN:
9781501706233
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501702440.003.0008
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Cultural and Historical Geography

This chapter takes a look at the early amphibians. Living amphibians are typically small animals, tending to be soft-bodied and relatively inconspicuous in appearance. In contrast, a great variety of ... More


The First Catastrophe and Retreat

George R. McGhee

in When the Invasion of Land Failed: The Legacy of the Devonian Extinctions

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231160575
eISBN:
9780231536363
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231160575.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Paleontology

This chapter describes the End-Frasnian Catastrophe. In the end of Frasnian period, the vertebrates and arthropods on land began to die in greater numbers. Reproduction rates in the living fell, and ... More


The Legacy of the Devonian Extinctions

George R. McGhee

in When the Invasion of Land Failed: The Legacy of the Devonian Extinctions

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231160575
eISBN:
9780231536363
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231160575.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Paleontology

This chapter discusses the impact of Devonian Extinction (End-Frasnian Catastrophe and End-Famennian Catastrophe) on the evolution of species. These catastrophes did not merely delay vertebrate ... More


Research Applications and Integration

Padian Kevin, Boef Miara Maria de, Larsson Hans C.E., Wilson Laura, and Bromage Timothy

in Bone Histology of Fossil Tetrapods: Advancing Methods, Analysis, and Interpretation

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780520273528
eISBN:
9780520955110
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520273528.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Paleontology

This chapter addresses some of the questions and issues associated with the “four signals” of bone histology, with the aim of actuating further research. It discusses how knowledge in ... More


Animal Consciousness

Gerhard Roth

in Chimeras and Consciousness: Evolution of the Sensory Self

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015394
eISBN:
9780262312462
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015394.003.0020
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter questions the attribution of “higher” human cognition just to the brain’s hypertrophied cortex. It highlights the high number of cortical neurons and the speed with which they process ... More


The ecological perspective

T.S. Kemp

in The Origin of Higher Taxa: Palaeobiological, developmental, and ecological perspectives

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
December 2015
ISBN:
9780199691883
eISBN:
9780191807565
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199691883.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

From the viewpoint of the correlated progression model of character change, a long evolving lineage experiences changes in many of its characters, associated with several, indeed in principle with ... More


The vertebrate fossil record

T.S. Kemp

in The Origin of Higher Taxa: Palaeobiological, developmental, and ecological perspectives

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
December 2015
ISBN:
9780199691883
eISBN:
9780191807565
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199691883.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The vertebrate fossil record includes a number of sequences of stem taxa of modern higher taxa. The most informative are the stem mammals, with around a dozen grades known in considerable detail. The ... More


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