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Living standards

Nicholas Crafts

in Work and Pay in 20th Century Britain

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780199212668
eISBN:
9780191712807
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199212668.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

This chapter seeks to answer the question: how much did average British living standards increase during the 20th century? The goal is not to explain the trends but to explore the difficulties of ... More


Introduction

Robert C. Allen, Tommy Bengtsson, and Martin Dribe

in Living Standards in the Past: New Perspectives on Well-Being in Asia and Europe

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199280681
eISBN:
9780191602467
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199280681.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

In the introduction, different contributions are brought together in an analysis of pre-industrial living standards in East and West, viewed in the light of the general debate on these issues from ... More


New Evidence on the Standard of Living in Sweden During the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries: Long-Term Development of the Demographic Response to Short-Term Economic Stress

Tommy Bengtsson and Martin Dribe

in Living Standards in the Past: New Perspectives on Well-Being in Asia and Europe

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199280681
eISBN:
9780191602467
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199280681.003.0015
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Presents a new view of the standard of living development in Sweden during the agricultural revolution, using evidence on the ability to overcome short-term economic stress. The results corroborate ... More


Standards of Living in Eighteenth-Century China: Regional Differences, Temporal Trends, and Incomplete Evidence

Kenneth Pomeranz

in Living Standards in the Past: New Perspectives on Well-Being in Asia and Europe

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199280681
eISBN:
9780191602467
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199280681.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Attempts to reconstruct basic aspects of the standard of living in late eighteenth century China, focusing primarily on the Yangzi Delta (China’s richest region) but also briefly considering other ... More


Farm Labour Productivity in Jiangnan, 1620–1850

Bozhong Li

in Living Standards in the Past: New Perspectives on Well-Being in Asia and Europe

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199280681
eISBN:
9780191602467
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199280681.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Contrary to the conventional view, labour productivity on farms in Jiangnan, the Yangzi Delta in East China, did not deteriorate or stagnate but instead improved between 1620 and 1850. Changes in the ... More


Work and Pay in 20th Century Britain

Nicholas Crafts, Ian Gazeley, and Andrew Newell (eds)

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780199212668
eISBN:
9780191712807
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199212668.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

This book charts the immense transformation of work and pay across the 20th century and provides a labour-focused history of Britain. It has been written by British historians and economists. Each ... More


Living Standards in Liaoning, 1749–1909: Evidence from Demographic Outcomes

James Z. Lee and Cameron D. Campbell

in Living Standards in the Past: New Perspectives on Well-Being in Asia and Europe

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199280681
eISBN:
9780191602467
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199280681.003.0017
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

To assess trends in the standard of living in Liaoning province in north-east China during the nineteenth century, the secular change in demographic rates and their sensitivity to economic conditions ... More


Country Comparisons

Fred Campano and Dominick Salvatore

in Income Distribution: Includes CD

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780195300918
eISBN:
9780199783441
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195300912.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter compares the living standards between countries. Per capita comparisons and the estimation of international poverty thresholds are discussed in light of purchasing power parity and ... More


Height and the High Life: What Future for a Tall Story?

Timothy Leunig and Hans-Joachim Voth

in The Economic Future in Historical Perspective

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197263471
eISBN:
9780191734786
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197263471.003.0015
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter discusses height as a reliable indicator of health status and standard of living. It also suggests that mapping from height to other measures of well-being has attracted the attention of ... More


Economic Growth and Social Change in the Very Long Run

Bas van Bavel

in Manors and Markets: Economy and Society in the Low Countries 500-1600

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199278664
eISBN:
9780191707032
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199278664.003.0008
Subject:
History, European Medieval History

This final chapter reconstructs the patterns of economic growth and the shifts of the economic core regions in the medieval Low Countries. These show that the centre shifted from the Guelders River ... More


Real Wages in Europe and Asia: A First Look at the Long-Term Patterns

Robert C. Allen

in Living Standards in the Past: New Perspectives on Well-Being in Asia and Europe

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199280681
eISBN:
9780191602467
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199280681.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, wage rates in Japan, India, and China were lower than their counterparts in Europe when the wages are compared at the exchange rates implied by the silver ... More


What Happened to the Standard of Living Before the Industrial Revolution? New Evidence from the Western Part of the Netherlands

Jan Luiten van Zanden

in Living Standards in the Past: New Perspectives on Well-Being in Asia and Europe

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199280681
eISBN:
9780191602467
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199280681.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Presents improved estimates of the cost of living and the real wages of labourers in the western part of the Netherlands. The results show that even in this relatively dynamic economy there was a ... More


The Human Body in Britain: Past and Future

Roderick Floud

in The Economic Future in Historical Perspective

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197263471
eISBN:
9780191734786
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197263471.003.0014
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter explores evidence on the changing shape of the British human body, in particular its height and weight, in order to shed light on the past and possibly future standard of living of the ... More


Financial Poverty

Tony Atkinson, Bea Cantillon, Eric Marlier, and Brian Nolan

in Social Indicators: The EU and Social Inclusion

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199253494
eISBN:
9780191595882
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199253498.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

Chs. 5–8 examine individual indicators, beginning in Ch. 5 with a single field: the risk of financial poverty. A whole chapter is devoted to this one indicator for two reasons: poverty is ... More


The Standard of Living in Denmark in the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries

Hans Chr. Johansen

in Living Standards in the Past: New Perspectives on Well-Being in Asia and Europe

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199280681
eISBN:
9780191602467
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199280681.003.0013
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Traditional measures of real wages cover only the standard of living of a small fraction of the Danish population in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries and due to constant wages over long ... More


Christopher Bliss: Life‐Style and the Standard of Living

Amartya Sen

in The Quality of Life

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198287971
eISBN:
9780191596704
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198287976.003.0032
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

Sen agrees with Bliss's conclusion regarding the impossibility of making comparisons where changes in life‐styles and preferences are involved, but raises problems with Bliss's methodology and ... More


Summary, Synthesis, and Conclusions, Part 2: Government Policies for Lone Women

Gertrude Schaffner Goldberg

in Poor Women in Rich Countries: The Feminization of Poverty Over the Life Course

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195314304
eISBN:
9780199865574
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195314304.003.0011
Subject:
Social Work, Social Policy

This chapter identifies the economic, social, and equal opportunity policies that facilitate women's achievement of an acceptable standard of living, or an escape from poverty independent of family ... More


The Quality of Life

Martha Nussbaum and Amartya Sen (eds)

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198287971
eISBN:
9780191596704
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198287976.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This volume gathers the thoughts of reputed academics in economics, social policy, philosophy, and the social sciences as they scrutinize contentions regarding quality of life and the way in which it ... More


National Income and Labor Income Markets

Robert J. Shiller

in Macro Markets: Creating Institutions for Managing Society's Largest Economic Risks

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294184
eISBN:
9780191596926
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198294182.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics, Financial Economics

For the purpose of hedging risks to standards of living, the logical place to look first would be to markets for claims on total income; but such markets do not exist, and they have apparently never ... More


Macro Tensions

János Kornai

in The Socialist System: The Political Economy of Communism

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198287766
eISBN:
9780191596551
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198287763.003.0023
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic Systems

Changes in the macroeconomy can be observed in countries undergoing reforms of classical socialism, and can result in tensions if the economy has shifted appreciably from classical towards market ... More


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