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Relationship between Force and Cross-Sectional Area of Postcervical Muscles in Man: Influence of Variations in the Morphology of the Neck

Marie-Anne Mayoux-Benhamou, Marc Wybier, Jacques Patrick Barbet, Sylvain Labbé, and Michel Revel

in The Head-Neck Sensory Motor System

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195068207
eISBN:
9780199847198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195068207.003.0020
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Neck muscles have both dynamic and static functionalities, since they move the head in all directions and since they also have a postural role as antagonists of gravity. The static function depends ... More


Functional Outcome after Segmental Arthrodesis of the Cervical Spine

Henri Mestdagh and Hervé Leclet

in The Head-Neck Sensory Motor System

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195068207
eISBN:
9780199847198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195068207.003.0111
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

The objective of this study is to evaluate the remaining range of head movement after surgery and to account for the behavior of the intervertebral levels beyond the site of arthrodesis. There is an ... More


Neuropathology of Aging

Dara L. Dickstein, John H. Morrison, and Patrick R. Hof

in Imaging the Aging Brain

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195328875
eISBN:
9780199864836
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195328875.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques, Development

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extensive, yet selective, neuron death in the cerebral neocortex leading to dramatic decline in cognitive abilities and memory. A more modest disruption ... More


Secondary defences

Graeme D. Ruxton, Thomas N. Sherratt, and Michael P. Speed

in Avoiding Attack: The Evolutionary Ecology of Crypsis, Warning Signals and Mimicry

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198528609
eISBN:
9780191713392
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528609.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Secondary defences act after predators have successfully detected and recognized prey; they seek to dissuade the predator from attacking and/or increase the likelihood of the prey surviving the ... More


The Synaptic Organization of the Brain

Gordon M. Shepherd (ed.)

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195159561
eISBN:
9780199864447
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195159561.001.1
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, Development

Synapses are the contact sites that enable neurons to form connections between each other in order to transmit and process neural information. Synaptic organization is concerned with the principles ... More


Spinal Cord: Ventral Horn

ROBERT E. BURKE

in The Synaptic Organization of the Brain

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195159561
eISBN:
9780199864447
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195159561.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, Development

This chapter presents an overview of the neuron types present in the ventral spinal cord, some features of their cellular and synaptic physiology, and some of their known circuit interactions. There ... More


Neocortex

RODNEY DOUGLAS, HENRY MARKRAM, and KEVAN MARTIN

in The Synaptic Organization of the Brain

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195159561
eISBN:
9780199864447
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195159561.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, Development

This chapter focuses on the structure and function of the microcircuits of the neocortex and their components. Topics covered include embryonic development, neuronal elements, synaptic connections, ... More


Molecular determinants of dendrite and spine development

Franck Polleux and Anirvan Ghosh

in Dendrites

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198566564
eISBN:
9780191724206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566564.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

Information processing in neurons is critically dependent on dendritic morphology. The overall extent and orientation of dendrites determines the kinds of input a neuron receives. Fine dendritic ... More


A Thorny Question: The Role of Spine Morphogenesis in Adaptive Plasticity

Hamilton Andrew and Zito Karen

in Cerebral Plasticity: New Perspectives

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015233
eISBN:
9780262295444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015233.003.0011
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

This chapter discusses some of the most exciting recent discoveries concerning the mechanisms of spine synapse plasticity and reviews the most intriguing questions which still loom over these tiny ... More


Dendrites

Greg Stuart, Nelson Spruston, and Michael Häusser (eds)

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198745273
eISBN:
9780191819735
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198745273.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Molecular and Cellular Systems

Dendrites are complex neuronal structures that receive and integrate synaptic input from other nerve cells. They therefore play a critical role in brain function. Although dendrites were discovered ... More


Functional plasticity at dendritic synapses

Zachary F. Mainen and Larry F. Abbott

in Dendrites

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198566564
eISBN:
9780191724206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566564.003.0018
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

Most synapses are made onto dendrites, and most excitatory connections are made onto dendritic spines. Synaptic plasticity is thus an intrinsically dendritic phenomenon, but the functional ... More


Skeletal Geometry in Vertebrates and Its Relation to the Vestibular End Organs

Werner Graf, Catherine de Waele, and Pierre Paul Vidal

in The Head-Neck Sensory Motor System

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195068207
eISBN:
9780199847198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195068207.003.0017
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

The results in man and monkey came as no surprise since an erect cervical column had been considered one of the characteristics of “humanness” and a consequence of bipedalism and upright stance. ... More


The Cervical Spine, from Anatomy and Physiology to Clinical Care

John H. Blandand and Dallas R. Boushey

in The Head-Neck Sensory Motor System

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195068207
eISBN:
9780199847198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195068207.003.0018
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

The cervical spine is the most intricate articulate system in the human body. There are thirty-seven separate joints whose function is to carry out the many movements of the head and neck in relation ... More


Structure

Rafael Yuste

in Dendritic Spines

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262013505
eISBN:
9780262259286
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262013505.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

This chapter attempted to summarize the common morphological features of spines. Data for this chapter were derived from the literature on pyramidal and Purkinje cells. It shows that spines are ... More


Dendritic Spines

Rafael Yuste

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262013505
eISBN:
9780262259286
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262013505.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

Most neurons in the brain are covered by dendritic spines, small protrusions that arise from dendrites, covering them like leaves on a tree. But a hundred and twenty years after spines were first ... More


Learning as Design/Design of Learning

Peter Sterling

in Principles of Neural Design

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262028707
eISBN:
9780262327312
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028707.003.0014
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

Learning belongs to a broad principle of biological design: adapt, match, learn, and forget. Organisms respond to changed demands by re-sculpting at all levels to prepare for what will most likely be ... More


Introduction

Rafael Yuste

in Dendritic Spines

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262013505
eISBN:
9780262259286
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262013505.003.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

This chapter aims to integrate all current knowledge on dendritic spines, and provide information on the important features of the circuits in which they operate. It discusses the various aspects of ... More


Discovery

Rafael Yuste

in Dendritic Spines

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262013505
eISBN:
9780262259286
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262013505.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

This chapter narrates the discovery of dendritic spines. It begins with Santiago Ramón y Cajal, a Spanish professor of Pathology and Histology, and his work entitled Estractura delos centros ... More


Molecules

Rafael Yuste

in Dendritic Spines

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262013505
eISBN:
9780262259286
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262013505.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

This chapter aims to explore the molecular components of the spine. It points out that significant overlap exists between molecular studies of spines and the molecular studies of synapses. This ... More


Development

Rafael Yuste

in Dendritic Spines

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262013505
eISBN:
9780262259286
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262013505.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

The development of spines in two types of neurons: cerebellar Purkinje cells, and cortical pyramidal neurons, are described. The chapter asserts that some of the features of spinogenesis may be ... More


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