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Social Perception and Social Reality: Why Accuracy Dominates Bias and Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Lee Jussim

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195366600
eISBN:
9780199933044
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195366600.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This book contests the received wisdom in the field of social psychology that suggests that social perception and judgment are generally flawed, biased, and powerfully self-fulfilling. The book ... More


The Science of Social Vision

Reginald B. Adams, Nalini Ambady, Ken Nakayama, and Shinsuke Shimojo (eds)

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195333176
eISBN:
9780199864324
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195333176.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Vision, Cognitive Neuroscience

The human visual system is particularly attuned to and remarkably efficient at processing social cues. We can effectively “read” others' mental and emotional states and make snap judgments about ... More


Accuracy: Historical, Political, and Conceptual Objections

Lee Jussim

in Social Perception and Social Reality: Why Accuracy Dominates Bias and Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195366600
eISBN:
9780199933044
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195366600.003.0037
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter reviews many of the reasons why accuracy is a controversial topic in social psychology. The historical interest in accuracy is briefly reviewed, as are some older reviews from the 1950s ... More


Accuracy: Criteria

Lee Jussim

in Social Perception and Social Reality: Why Accuracy Dominates Bias and Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195366600
eISBN:
9780199933044
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195366600.003.0039
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter reviews the theoretical and empirical bases for identifying the criteria appropriate for assessing the accuracy of social beliefs, interpersonal expectancies, and social stereotypes. ... More


Stereotypes and Person Perception: Can Judging Individuals on the Basis of Stereotypes Increase Accuracy?

Lee Jussim

in Social Perception and Social Reality: Why Accuracy Dominates Bias and Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195366600
eISBN:
9780199933044
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195366600.003.0074
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter examines the role of stereotypes in enhancing or reducing the accuracy of person perception. It points out that relying on an inaccurate stereotype will usually reduce accuracy of person ... More


Compound Social Cues in Human Face Processing

Reginald B. Adams, Robert G. Franklin, Anthony J. Nelson, and Michael T. Stevenson

in The Science of Social Vision

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195333176
eISBN:
9780199864324
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195333176.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Vision, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter describes a rationale for understanding compound social cue processing in the face. This approach comes with a number of assumptions. The first assumption is that facial features ... More


Are People Special? A Brain’s Eye View

Anthony P. Atkinson, Andrea S. Heberlein, and Ralph Adolphs

in The Science of Social Vision

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195333176
eISBN:
9780199864324
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195333176.003.0022
Subject:
Psychology, Vision, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter considers the question of what it means for social perception and cognition to be special, and whether there are psychological processes and neural structures that are specialized for ... More


Accuracy: Components and Processes

Lee Jussim

in Social Perception and Social Reality: Why Accuracy Dominates Bias and Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195366600
eISBN:
9780199933044
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195366600.003.0041
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Social perception in general, and accuracy in particular, can be viewed as being composed of different components. Several different componential approaches to accuracy (Cronbach’s [1955], Kenny’s ... More


Seeing humans act

PIERRE JACOB and MARC JEANNEROD

in Ways of Seeing: The scope and limits of visual cognition

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198509219
eISBN:
9780191584909
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509219.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter examines how the human visual system responds to human actions. Section 1 starts with the examination of the human ‘praxic’ system, i.e. a high-level visual pragmatic processing of ... More


Person (Mis)Perception? On the Biased Representation of the Human Body

Kerri L. Johnson

in People Watching: Social, Perceptual, and Neurophysiological Studies of Body Perception

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780195393705
eISBN:
9780199979271
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393705.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

A considerable amount of research has shown that observers are attuned to cues in the human body—including its shape and motion—that permit them to successfully categorize others into groups (e.g., ... More


Brain Mechanisms for Social Perception:: Moving Toward an Understanding of Autism

Kevin Pelphrey and Sarah Shultz

in People Watching: Social, Perceptual, and Neurophysiological Studies of Body Perception

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780195393705
eISBN:
9780199979271
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393705.003.0019
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The levels of social impairment experienced by different individuals with autism spectrum disorder strongly correlate with the degrees of dysfunction within each individual’s superior temporal sulcus ... More


The 90% Full Glass Contests the Bias for Bias

Lee Jussim

in Social Perception and Social Reality: Why Accuracy Dominates Bias and Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195366600
eISBN:
9780199933044
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195366600.003.0082
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter captures many of the themes of this book by first summarizing a “story” common throughout the social sciences. It is a story that emphasizes the role of stereotypes, social beliefs, and ... More


Perceiving Social Category Information from Faces: Using ERPs to Study Person Perception

Tiffany A. Ito

in Social Neuroscience: Toward Understanding the Underpinnings of the Social Mind

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195316872
eISBN:
9780199893324
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195316872.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

The human ability to perceive faces is particularly impressive when considered in the context of the many different social inferences we perform, as well as the high degree of accuracy and relatively ... More


Blind to Sameness: Sexpectations and the Social Construction of Male and Female Bodies

Asia Friedman

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780226023465
eISBN:
9780226023779
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226023779.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Gender and Sexuality

What is the role of the senses in how we understand the world? Cognitive sociology has long addressed the way we perceive or imagine boundaries in our ordinary lives, but this book pushes this ... More


Infant perception and production of emotions during face-to-face interactions with live and ‘virtual’ adults

Darwin Muir, Kang Lee, Christine Hains, and Sylvia Hains

in Emotional Development:: Recent Research Advances

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198528845
eISBN:
9780191689567
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528845.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter discusses the emergence and development of infants' competence in social perception — their ability to perceive, understand, and to react to people as opposed objects. It begins by ... More


What Puts the Jointness into Joint Attentio n?

R. Peter Hobson

in Joint Attention: Communication and Other Minds: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199245635
eISBN:
9780191715303
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199245635.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter argues that joint attention needs to be understood in terms of one person's engagement with another person's engagement with the world. It is pivotal from a developmental perspective ... More


Social Color Vision

Mark A. Changizi and Shinsuke Shimojo

in The Science of Social Vision

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195333176
eISBN:
9780199864324
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195333176.003.0017
Subject:
Psychology, Vision, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter reviews evidence supporting the hypothesis that color vision is a kind of social vision, about the emotional states and moods of others. The argument from the first of the three main ... More


Invisible Mind: Flexible Social Cognition and Dehumanization

Lasana T. Harris

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780262035965
eISBN:
9780262339049
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035965.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Why do people engage in pro and anti-social behaviour? Invisible Mind takes an interdisciplinary approach to address this question, among others, by focussing on the spontaneous psychological ability ... More


Application of Associative Learning Paradigms to Clinically Relevant Individual Differences in Cognitive Processing

Teresa A. Treat, John K. Kruschke, Richard J. Viken, and Richard M. McFall

in Associative Learning and Conditioning Theory: Human and Non-Human Applications

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199735969
eISBN:
9780199894529
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199735969.003.0121
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter presents efforts to examine clinically relevant individual differences in category learning with complex, socially relevant stimuli, highlighting the generalizability of cognitive ... More


Introduction: The Interdisciplinary Study of Social Perception

M.D. Rutherford and Valerie A. Kuhlmeier

in Social Perception: Detection and Interpretation of Animacy, Agency, and Intention

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780262019279
eISBN:
9780262315029
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262019279.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

The focus of this book is on the detection and interpretation of intentional social entities. While Fritz Heider is often considered one of the major influences on social psychology his emphasis on ... More


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