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The Emergence of a Scientific Culture: Science and the Shaping of Modernity 1210-1685

Stephen Gaukroger

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199296446
eISBN:
9780191711985
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199296446.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

The West's sense of itself, its relation to its past, and its sense of its future have been profoundly altered since the 17th century as cognitive values generally have gradually come to be shaped ... More


What is Science?

Robin Feldman

in The Role of Science in Law

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195368581
eISBN:
9780199867455
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195368581.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This chapter highlights key moments in which science emerges and separates from other types of intellectual inquiry. In particular, it focuses on three periods of history that are critical to the ... More


The Traditional Sciences, the Scientific Revolution, and Its Aftermath

Seyyed Hossein Nasr

in Religion & The Order of Nature: The 1994 Cadbury Lectures at the University of Birmingham

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195108231
eISBN:
9780199853441
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195108231.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, Islam

To understand the radical transformations brought about by modern science concerning the order of nature, it is necessary first to mention the significance of the traditional sciences of the cosmos ... More


A Wider Role for Analogies

Paul F. A. Bartha

in By Parallel Reasoning: The Construction and Evaluation of Analogical Arguments

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195325539
eISBN:
9780199776313
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195325539.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This concluding chapter outlines how my theory of analogical arguments can be extended to analogies in scientific revolutions and, more generally, outside science. As an example, Hacking's analogical ... More


Taking an Empirical Stance

Ernan McMullin

in Images of Empiricism: Essays on Science and Stances, with a Reply from Bas C. van Fraassen

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199218844
eISBN:
9780191711732
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199218844.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter begins by considering the role of emotion in scientific revolutions. It argues that one can undergo a scientific revolution without ever facing an existentialist moment where emotion is ... More


Whatever Should We Do with Cartesian Method?—Reclaiming Descartes for the History of Science

John A. Schuster

in Essays on the Philosophy and Science of René Descartes

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195075519
eISBN:
9780199853052
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195075519.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter describes the discovery, perfection, and application of the scientific method as the Scientific Revolution happens. Bacon, Galileo, Harvey, Huygens, and Newton were singularly successful ... More


Geography, Science, and the Scientific Revolution

Charles W. J. Withers (ed.)

in Geography and Revolution

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226487335
eISBN:
9780226487359
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226487359.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter suggests that, albeit in different ways and places and for different men, geography is part of what we have come to term the “Scientific Revolution,” which is generally recognized and ... More


Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Jonathan I. Israel

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

Arguably the most decisive shift in the history of ideas in modern times was the complete demolition during the late 17th and 18th centuries — in the wake of the Scientific Revolution — of ... More


No Scientific Revolution in Medicine

Paul U. Unschuld

in What Is Medicine?: Western and Eastern Approaches to Healing

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520257658
eISBN:
9780520944701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257658.003.0062
Subject:
Anthropology, Medical Anthropology

This chapter sheds light on the scientific revolution in medicine in the centuries following the decline of the Song dynasty to the end of the empire in 1912. There were a couple of initiatives, but ... More


When Structure Met Sputnik:: On the Cold War Origins of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

George Reisch

in Science and Technology in the Global Cold War

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780262027953
eISBN:
9780262326100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027953.003.0012
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines two moments in the development of Thomas Kuhn’s theory of science that debuted in 1962’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions: when Kuhn spoke in Berkeley about the meaning ... More


Big Science and “Big Science Studies” in the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War

Elena Aronova

in Science and Technology in the Global Cold War

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780262027953
eISBN:
9780262326100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027953.003.0013
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

‘Big Science’ as a notion was coined in 1960 by physicist Alvin Weinberg and physicist-turned-historian Derek de Solla Price, and immediately became the center of heated discussions in the U.S. ... More


The Recursive Argument Method of Medieval Science

Christopher I. Beckwith

in Warriors of the Cloisters: The Central Asian Origins of Science in the Medieval World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691155319
eISBN:
9781400845170
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691155319.003.0002
Subject:
History, World Medieval History

This chapter examines the recursive argument method of medieval science. The distinctive argument method used in scientific literature from the High Middle Ages to the Enlightenment was the ... More


From the Occult to Mechanical Theories of the Discharge

Stanley Finger and Marco Piccolino

in The Shocking History of Electric Fishes: From Ancient Epochs to the Birth of Modern Neurophysiology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195366723
eISBN:
9780199897087
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195366723.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter examines new theories about the mechanisms of torpedo discharge that emerged as a consequence of the scientific revolution of the 17th century. These theories are centered on mechanical ... More


Renaissance, Reformation and Scientific Revolution

Jeremy Black

in The Power of Knowledge: How Information and Technology Made the Modern World

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780300167955
eISBN:
9780300198546
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300167955.003.0004
Subject:
History, World Modern History

This chapter describes the significant role played by the Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation, and the Scientific Revolution in the coming of the modern age. It discusses the consequences of the ... More


“The Ray of Life”: Science in Revolutions

Nikolai Krementsov

in Revolutionary Experiments: The Quest for Immortality in Bolshevik Science and Fiction

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199992980
eISBN:
9780199370016
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199992980.003.0002
Subject:
History, World Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

With Mikhail Bulgakov’s novella “Fateful Eggs” as its entry point, this chapter identifies the common contexts that shaped the interactions of various actors involved with scientific and literary ... More


Geography and Revolution

David N. Livingstone and Charles W. J. Withers (eds)

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226487335
eISBN:
9780226487359
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226487359.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

A term with myriad associations, revolution is commonly understood in its intellectual, historical, and sociopolitical contexts. Until now, almost no attention has been paid to revolution and ... More


Introduction

Frédérique Apffel-Marglin

in Subversive Spiritualities: How Rituals Enact the World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199793853
eISBN:
9780199919246
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199793853.003.0001
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

The chapter begins in a narrative voice that speaks of our abandonment by a host of beings that used to accompany our earthly journey. This abandonment, sealed with the triumph of the scientific ... More


The Birth of Political Economy

Ernesto Screpanti and Stefano Zamagni

in An Outline of the History of Economic Thought

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2005
ISBN:
9780199279142
eISBN:
9780191602887
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199279144.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

Starts by characterizing the end of the Middle Ages and the beginnings of the modern world. Then considers mercantilism, with special emphasis on demographic and monetary theories and policies. ... More


Dissolving Rationality

Philip Kitcher

in The Advancement of Science: Science Without Legend, Objectivity Without Illusions

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195096538
eISBN:
9780199833351
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195096533.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The approach to progress allows an apparently simple analysis of scientific rationality: a transition in practice is rational just in case it is generated by some procedure that would be expected to ... More


Gray Eminences of the Scientific-Technical Revolution

Eglė Rindzevičiūtė

in The Power of Systems: How Policy Sciences Opened Up the Cold War World

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9781501703188
eISBN:
9781501706257
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501703188.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Russian Politics

This chapter argues that a new, post-Stalinist governmentality emerged in the Soviet Union as a result of several postwar developments. Innovations in computer, information, and control technologies ... More


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