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Everyday Practice of Science: Where Intuition and Passion Meet Objectivity and Logic

Frederick Grinnell

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195064575
eISBN:
9780199869442
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195064575.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Scientific facts can be so complicated that only specialists in a field fully appreciate the details, but the nature of everyday practice that gives rise to these facts should be understandable by ... More


 Chasing Duhem: The Problem of Unconceived Alternatives

P. Kyle Stanford

in Exceeding Our Grasp: Science, History, and the Problem of Unconceived Alternatives

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780195174083
eISBN:
9780199786367
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195174089.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Nearly a century ago, French physicist Pierre Duhem offered a characteristically lucid and provocative articulation of the challenge to the power of scientific methods to uncover theoretical truths ... More


Conclusion

Christopher I. Beckwith

in Warriors of the Cloisters: The Central Asian Origins of Science in the Medieval World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691155319
eISBN:
9781400845170
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691155319.003.0008
Subject:
History, World Medieval History

This chapter raises three objections about the development of a full scientific culture and examines the modern descendants of the recursive argument method. It suggests that colleges and the ... More


Whatever Should We Do with Cartesian Method?—Reclaiming Descartes for the History of Science

John A. Schuster

in Essays on the Philosophy and Science of René Descartes

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195075519
eISBN:
9780199853052
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195075519.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter describes the discovery, perfection, and application of the scientific method as the Scientific Revolution happens. Bacon, Galileo, Harvey, Huygens, and Newton were singularly successful ... More


Extending Ourselves: Computational Science, Empiricism, and Scientific Method

Paul Humphreys

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195158700
eISBN:
9780199785964
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195158709.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Computational science, especially computer simulations, is now the dominant procedure in many areas of science. This book contains the first systematic philosophical account of this new scientific ... More


Making Social Sciences More Scientific: The Need for Predictive Models

Rein Taagepera

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199534661
eISBN:
9780191715921
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199534661.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, Political Economy

Society needs more from social sciences than they have delivered. One reason for falling short is that social science methods have depended excessively on regression and other statistical approaches, ... More


Introduction

Christopher I. Beckwith

in Warriors of the Cloisters: The Central Asian Origins of Science in the Medieval World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691155319
eISBN:
9781400845170
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691155319.003.0001
Subject:
History, World Medieval History

This book investigates how the recursive argument method, the actual medieval “scientific method,” was transmitted along with the college to medieval Western Europe from Classical Arabic ... More


The Recursive Argument Method of Medieval Science

Christopher I. Beckwith

in Warriors of the Cloisters: The Central Asian Origins of Science in the Medieval World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691155319
eISBN:
9781400845170
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691155319.003.0002
Subject:
History, World Medieval History

This chapter examines the recursive argument method of medieval science. The distinctive argument method used in scientific literature from the High Middle Ages to the Enlightenment was the ... More


An Introduction to Newton's Scientific Method

William L. Harper

in Isaac Newton's Scientific Method: Turning Data into Evidence about Gravity and Cosmology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199570409
eISBN:
9780191728679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570409.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter includes some historical background on Astronomy, mechanics and physical causes, as well as an overview of Newton’s background framework and his theoretical concept of a centripetal ... More


Coherence and the Hierarchy of Method

Keith Lehrer

in Metamind

Published in print:
1990
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198248507
eISBN:
9780191681141
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198248507.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter discusses a traditional theory of scientific method and presents what is considered to be a salient criticism. It also considers an alternative coherence theory of scientific method ... More


Belief, Confidence, and the Method of Science

Christopher Hookway

in Truth, Rationality, and Pragmatism: Themes from Peirce

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199256587
eISBN:
9780191597718
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199256586.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

A discussion of Peirce's claim that belief has no place in science and his views of the different roles of rational self‐control in dealing with scientific matters and with ‘vital questions’. This ... More


Computational Science

Paul Humphreys

in Extending Ourselves: Computational Science, Empiricism, and Scientific Method

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195158700
eISBN:
9780199785964
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195158709.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Computational science involves a new kind of scientific method. The concepts of a computational template and a computational model are introduced as alternatives to scientific theories and laws, and ... More


The Method of Modern Empirical Science

Michael Horace Barnes

in Stages of Thought: The Co-Evolution of Religious Thought and Science

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195396270
eISBN:
9780199852482
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195396270.003.0010
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

This chapter describes and defends the method of modem science in preparation for religious responses to science. It begins with a general description of late formal operational thought and with the ... More


A Scientist's Voice in American Culture: Simon Newcomb and the Rhetoric of Scientific Method

Albert Moyer

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520076891
eISBN:
9780520912137
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520076891.001.0001
Subject:
Anthropology, American and Canadian Cultural Anthropology

In late nineteenth-century America, Simon Newcomb was the nation's most celebrated scientist and—irascibly, doggedly, tirelessly—he made the most of it. Officially a mathematical astronomer heading a ... More


Naturalism Characterized

Michael C. Rea

in World Without Design: The Ontological Consequences of Naturalism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199247608
eISBN:
9780191601804
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199247609.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Argues that characterizing naturalism as a view rather than a research programme and inevitably portrays naturalism either as a self‐defeating thesis or as a view commitment to which would be ... More


Method, Methodology, and Realism

Brian D. Haig

in Investigating the Psychological World: Scientific Method in the Behavioral Sciences

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780262027366
eISBN:
9780262322379
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027366.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

Chapter 1 introduces the topic of scientific method by providing some background material to better appreciate the more focused discussion of method in the ensuing chapters. It begins by briefly ... More


Probably Poe

Maurice S. Lee

in Uncertain Chances: Science, Skepticism, and Belief in Nineteenth-Century American Literature

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199797578
eISBN:
9780199932412
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199797578.003.0001
Subject:
Literature, American, 19th Century Literature

Focusing on Poe’s detective fiction, this chapter discusses the spread of probability theory in the 1830s and 1840s—in logic and mathematics, in sociology and statistics, and in gaming practices, ... More


: Visions of Freedom: The Response to Totalitarianism

Noël O’Sullivan

in The British Study of Politics in the Twentieth Century

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197262948
eISBN:
9780191734762
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197262948.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, UK Politics

This chapter considers four of the most influential visions that characterized the response to totalitarianism, and in particular the various concepts of limit they provide, since those are the basis ... More


Asking the right question

Marian Stamp Dawkins

in Observing Animal Behaviour: design and analysis of quantitative data

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198569350
eISBN:
9780191717512
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569350.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Fundamental to the success of any research project is asking the right question in the first place. In this chapter, Tinbergen's four questions about adaptation, causation, development, and evolution ... More


Inquiry: The Fixation of Belief

C. J. Misak

in Truth and the End of Inquiry: A Peircean Account of Truth

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199270590
eISBN:
9780191603174
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199270597.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter argues that Peirce’s account of inquiry has a sane empiricism at its core: inquirers aim to get beliefs that fit with experience, broadly construed. When a belief, which has come into ... More


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