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Science, Risk Assessment, and the SPS Agreement

Lukasz Gruszczynski

in Regulating Health and Environmental Risks under WTO Law: A Critical Analysis of the SPS Agreement

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199578924
eISBN:
9780191722646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199578924.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Environmental and Energy Law

This chapter addresses the science-based provisions of the SPS Agreement. The main part of the discussion is dedicated to risk assessment disciplines as elaborated by the SPS case law. This includes ... More


Scientific Evidence in the Tort Law

Kristin Shrader-frechette General

in Regulating Toxic Substances: A Philosophy of Science and the Law

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195074369
eISBN:
9780199852932
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195074369.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter argues against the shift in paradigm in favor of scientific evidence in tort law cases. Recent proposals, seeking to require more demanding scientific evidence in toxic tort (and other) ... More


The Book of Evidence

Peter Achinstein

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195143898
eISBN:
9780199833023
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195143892.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

What is required for a fact to be evidence for a hypothesis? In this book Achinstein introduces four concepts of evidence, which he calls potential, veridical, epistemic‐situation, and subjective. He ... More


Philosophy of Science Matters: The Philosophy of Peter Achinstein

Gregory J. Morgan (ed.)

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199738625
eISBN:
9780199894642
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199738625.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

In this, the first book devoted to Peter Achinstein's influential work in philosophy of science, twenty distinguished philosophers, including four Lakatos award winners, address various aspects of ... More


Scientific evidence and investigation by the new Criminal Cases Review Commission: the scope for further miscarriages of justice and crisis

Richard Nobles and David Schiff

in Understanding Miscarriages of Justice: Law, the Media and the Inevitability of a Crisis

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198298939
eISBN:
9780191685552
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198298939.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This chapter examines changes in the current processes and institutions of criminal justice that are expected to restore public confidence in the safety of convictions: the increased use of ... More


Concluding Remarks

Lukasz Gruszczynski

in Regulating Health and Environmental Risks under WTO Law: A Critical Analysis of the SPS Agreement

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199578924
eISBN:
9780191722646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199578924.003.0008
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Environmental and Energy Law

This chapter draws some overall conclusions on the substantive disciplines of the SPS Agreement, summarizing the previous discussion alongside the three objectives of the book: the appraisal of the ... More


In Praise of Randomisation: The Importance of Causality in Medicine and its Subversion by Philosophers of Science

DAVID COLQUHOUN

in Evidence, Inference and Enquiry

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780197264843
eISBN:
9780191754050
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264843.003.0012
Subject:
Sociology, Methodology and Statistics

The job of scientists is to try to distinguish what is true from what is false by means of observation and experiment. That job has been made difficult by some philosophers of science who appear to ... More


 Evidence and Value Freedom

Elliott Sober

in Value-Free Science?: Ideals and Illusions

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195308969
eISBN:
9780199867608
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195308969.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter examines values and scientific evidence. It argues that one way to put the ideal of value freedom is believing that a proposition has good or bad ethical consequences is not evidence for ... More


Never Too Early: A Comprehensive National Prevention Strategy

David P. Farrington and Brandon C. Welsh

in Saving Children from a Life of Crime: Early Risk Factors and Effective Interventions

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195304091
eISBN:
9780199944071
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195304091.003.0027
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter sets out a comprehensive national early prevention strategy that has the expressed aim of saving children from a life of crime and is grounded in the leading scientific evidence on what ... More


Achinstein's Replies

Gregory J. Morgan

in Philosophy of Science Matters: The Philosophy of Peter Achinstein

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199738625
eISBN:
9780199894642
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199738625.003.0020
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter gives Peter Achinstein's replies to the previous chapters which are about his views on the philosophy of science. The chapter responds to all of the previous chapters individually.


Introduction

Brandon C. Welsh and David P. Farrington

in Making Public Places Safer: Surveillance and Crime Prevention

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195326215
eISBN:
9780199943999
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326215.003.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This introductory chapter explains the theme of this book, which is about surveillance systems and crime prevention. It evaluates the effectiveness of closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras and ... More


The Ideal of Objectivity

Philip Kitcher

in Science, Truth, and Democracy

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195145830
eISBN:
9780199833344
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195145836.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The next step is to explore the possibility of scientific objectivity. It is argued that the supposed underdetermination of theory by evidence is not as intractable a problem as it has sometimes ... More


Ten Things the Law and Others Should Know about Human Memory

Martin A. Conway

in Memory and Law

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199920754
eISBN:
9780199950133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199920754.003.0014
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Forensic Psychology

This chapter describes my experiences a memory expert witness and how these led to a major report by the British Psychological Society on memory and the law. The aim of this report was to provide a ... More


Improved Street Lighting

Brandon C. Welsh and David P. Farrington

in Making Public Places Safer: Surveillance and Crime Prevention

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195326215
eISBN:
9780199943999
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326215.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter reviews the scientific evidence on the effectiveness of improved street lighting to prevent crime in public places. The findings reveal that although improved lighting can be effective ... More


Scientific and Other Expert Evidence

Michael J. Saks and Barbara A. Spellman

in The Psychological Foundations of Evidence Law

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9781479880041
eISBN:
9780814768785
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9781479880041.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Although most evidence that comes to court is non-technical—observations of everyday events by witnesses, records of business and other routine activities—an important and growing minority of ... More


Evidence and Method: Scientific Strategies of Isaac Newton and James Clerk Maxwell

Peter Achinstein

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199921850
eISBN:
9780199332892
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199921850.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

What is meant by scientific evidence, and how can a definition of this concept be applied in the sciences to determine whether observed facts constitute evidence that a given theory is true? This ... More


Picturing Scientific Evidence

Neal Feigenson and Christina Spiesel

in Law on Display: The Digital Transformation of Legal Persuasion and Judgment

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814727584
eISBN:
9780814728567
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814727584.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

This chapter focuses on the use of scientific pictures as evidence in the courtroom. Scientific evidence has long been a part of trials, but today it is perhaps more important than ever, as the range ... More


Ordinary Language and the Unordinary Philosophy of Peter Achinstein

Steven Gimbel and Jeffrey Maynes

in Philosophy of Science Matters: The Philosophy of Peter Achinstein

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199738625
eISBN:
9780199894642
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199738625.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

In 1959, Peter Achinstein left Harvard and his Logical Positivist-influenced teachers and spent a year working at Oxford during the heyday of ordinary language philosophy. In his writings on evidence ... More


The Need for Evidence-Based Public Health

ROSS C. BROWNSON, ELIZABETH A. BAKER, TERRY L. LEET, and KATHLEEN N. GILLESPIE

in Evidence-Based Public Health

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195143768
eISBN:
9780199865581
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195143768.003.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Public health practitioners have often based their decisions on short-term demands rather than long-term study, and policies and programs are sometimes developed around anecdotal evidence. A more ... More


Achinstein's Newtonian Empiricism

Victor Di Fate

in Philosophy of Science Matters: The Philosophy of Peter Achinstein

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199738625
eISBN:
9780199894642
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199738625.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

By examining Peter Achinstein's longstanding views on evidence and recent work on induction, this chapter attempts to characterize and critically evaluate Achinstein's meta-methodology. It is argued ... More


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