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Party Competition

Jonathan Bendor, Daniel Diermeier, David A. Siegel, and Michael M. Ting

in A Behavioral Theory of Elections

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691135076
eISBN:
9781400836802
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691135076.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter focuses on Downsian party competition, a behavioral model of elections based on satisficing coupled to the Schattschneider-Schumpeter-Downs macrohypothesis that major parties in vigorous ... More


Conclusions Bounded Rationality and Elections

Jonathan Bendor, Daniel Diermeier, David A. Siegel, and Michael M. Ting

in A Behavioral Theory of Elections

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691135076
eISBN:
9781400836802
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691135076.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter summarizes the book’s major findings regarding party location, turnout, voter choice, and voter participation. First, the simple party competition model suggests that in unidimensional ... More


Ecological Rationality: The Normative Study of Heuristics

Gerd Gigerenzer and Peter M. Todd

in Ecological Rationality: Intelligence in the World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195315448
eISBN:
9780199932429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315448.003.0142
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

Logic and probability theory have been the traditional arbiters of the normative question of how to make good decisions, while psychology has been relegated to studying the descriptive question of ... More


Realism about Situations

Paul Weirich

in Realistic Decision Theory: Rules for Nonideal Agents in Nonideal Circumstances

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2004
ISBN:
9780195171259
eISBN:
9780199834976
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019517125X.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

In ideal decision problems, the preference ranking of options has a stable top, but in some realistic problems there is no top option or a top option’s position is not stable–the option does not stay ... More


Two Kinds of Satisficing

Thomas Hurka

in Drawing Morals: Essays in Ethical Theory

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199743094
eISBN:
9780190267544
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199743094.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter discusses the two kinds of satisficing consequentialism—the absolute level satisficing and the comparative satisficing. Satisficing moralities encourage the agent to work towards an ... More


Externalism About Thinking

Adam Morton

in Bounded Thinking: Intellectual virtues for limited agents

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199658534
eISBN:
9780191746192
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199658534.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind

Knowledge is an unelevated externalist concept appropriate to limited agents. Extending the externalist point of view to a wide range of thinking gives us a useful way of maintaining a generally ... More


The Evolutionary Biology of Decision Making

Jeffrey R. Stevens

in Better Than Conscious?: Decision Making, the Human Mind, and Implications For Institutions

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262195805
eISBN:
9780262272353
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262195805.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Evolutionary and psychological approaches to decision making remain largely separate endeavors. Each offers necessary techniques and perspectives which, when integrated, will aid the study of ... More


The Future of Diagnostics: From Optimizing to Satisficing

Henry Brighton

in Better Doctors, Better Patients, Better Decisions: Envisioning Health Care 2020

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262016032
eISBN:
9780262298957
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016032.003.0017
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology

In health care, our observations are shaped by interactions between complex biological and social systems. Practitioners seek diagnostic instruments that are both predictive and simple enough to use ... More


ECONOMIC RATIONALITY

Paul. Weirich

in The Oxford Handbook of Rationality

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780195145397
eISBN:
9780199752393
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195145399.003.0020
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Weirich examines three competing views entertained by economic theory about the instrumental rationality of decisions: the first says to maximize self-interest, the second to maximize utility, and ... More


Biases in responding

David L. Streiner and Geoffrey R. Norman

in Health Measurement Scales: A practical guide to their development and use

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199231881
eISBN:
9780191724015
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231881.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Although it is hoped that respondents will answer all items honestly and accurately, this is often not the case. Various factors affect how a person will respond. These include the cognitive demands ... More


Overcoming General Audience Tendencies and Biases to Enhance Lay Understanding of Data

David E. Nelson, Bradford W. Hesse, and Robert T. Croyle

in Making Data Talk: The Science and Practice of Translating Public Health Research and Surveillance Findings to Policy Makers, the Public, and the Press

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195381535
eISBN:
9780199864782
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195381535.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter draws heavily from the field of psychology and explains what happens when lay audiences are exposed to quantitative information. National surveys and research studies demonstrate that ... More


“If… ”: Satisficing Algorithms for Mapping Conditional Statements onto Social Domains

Alejandro López-Rousseau and Timothy Ketelaar

in Heuristics: The Foundations of Adaptive Behavior

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199744282
eISBN:
9780199894727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744282.003.0038
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

People regularly use conditional statements to communicate promises and threats, advice and warnings, permissions and obligations to other people. Given that all conditionals are formally ... More


Reasoning the Fast and Frugal Way: Models of Bounded Rationality

Gerd Gigerenzer and Daniel G. Goldstein

in Heuristics: The Foundations of Adaptive Behavior

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199744282
eISBN:
9780199894727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744282.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

Humans and animals make inferences about the world under limited time and knowledge. In contrast, many models of rational inference treat the mind as a Laplacean Demon, equipped with unlimited time, ... More


Social Economics: Current and Emerging Avenues

Joan Costa-Font and Mario Macis

in Social Economics: Current and Emerging Avenues

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780262035651
eISBN:
9780262337915
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035651.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

The separation of economics and sociology as distinct disciplines can be traced back to at least the so-called “ordinal revolution” (Pareto 1900, 1909) and the subsequent development of ‘marginalism’ ... More


Specialist versus Generalist Decision Making

Armin W. Schulz

in Efficient Cognition: The Evolution of Representational Decision Making

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780262037600
eISBN:
9780262345262
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262037600.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

A number of scholars argue that human and animal decision making, at least to the extent that it is driven by representational mental states, should be seen to be the result of the application of a ... More


Common Knowledge

Robin Clark

in Meaningful Games: Exploring Language with Game Theory

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016179
eISBN:
9780262298742
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016179.003.0006
Subject:
Linguistics, Applied Linguistics and Pedagogy

This chapter explores the problem of common knowledge. It shows that true common knowledge, a prerequisite of rational game playing, is unachievable. But speakers and hearers must achieve something ... More


Managing Innovation Dilemmas

Yakov Ben-Haim

in The Dilemmas of Wonderland: Decisions in the Age of Innovation

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780198822233
eISBN:
9780191861246
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198822233.003.0005
Subject:
Business and Management, Innovation, Knowledge Management

Innovation dilemmas pervade many personal and professional decisions. This chapter explores a method for responsibly handling those dilemmas. The approach is based on two fundamental ... More


Identify Potential Root Causes

Arnaud Chevallier

in Strategic Thinking in Complex Problem Solving

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780190463908
eISBN:
9780190627447
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190463908.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

The third chapter, “Identify potential root causes,” explains how to leverage an issue map—a graphical breakdown of the key question—to identify all the possible root causes for the problem and test ... More


The Metaphysics of Divine Love

William E. Mann

in God, Modality, and Morality

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199370764
eISBN:
9780199373635
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199370764.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Moral Philosophy

Why should God, a perfect being, love beings that are conspicuously imperfect? Contemporary philosophers have offered various hallmarks of love: it confers intrinsic value on the beloved; it desires ... More


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