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Exit from Early Retirement: Paradigm Shifts, Policy Reversals, and Reform Obstacles

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

in Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199286119
eISBN:
9780191604089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286116.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Governments have realized the negative impact of early retirement on social expenditures and labor costs, responding with a paradigm shift away from passive labor market policies. Governments seek to ... More


Ever Earlier Retirement: Comparing Employment Trajectories

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

in Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199286119
eISBN:
9780191604089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286116.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The chapter analyzes the main trends and cross-national variations in early exit from work for eight European countries, Japan, and the USA. Participation levels and employment rates of older workers ... More


The Protection‐Pull Factors: Multiple Pathways to Early Exit

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

in Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199286119
eISBN:
9780191604089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286116.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

There are multiple pathways to early exit from work: early pensions (retirement age before 65), flexible and partial pensions, special preretirement schemes, long-term unemployment benefits, and ... More


Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199286119
eISBN:
9780191604089
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286116.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Since the 1970s, early exit from work has become a major challenge in modern welfare states. Governments, employers, and unions alike once thought of early retirement as a peaceful solution to the ... More


Thinking about Funding Federal Retirement Plans

Toni Hustead

in The Future of Public Employee Retirement Systems

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199573349
eISBN:
9780191721946
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573349.003.0008
Subject:
Business and Management, Public Management, Pensions and Pension Management

Most US federal retirement plans are now fully funded, but since plan assets must legally be invested in federal securities, fund surpluses are used to reduce overall federal budget deficits. As a ... More


Introduction: The Paradox of Early Exit from Work

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

in Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199286119
eISBN:
9780191604089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286116.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Early retirement has become a major issue of current welfare state reforms in aging societies. This introductory chapter discusses the different protection-oriented ‘pull’ and production-oriented ... More


Actor Constellations and Interest Coalitions: Labor, Employers, and the State

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

in Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199286119
eISBN:
9780191604089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286116.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The chapter discusses how the state, employers, and organized labor promote and reform early retirement policies. What interests do workers, employers, and workplace representatives have in using ... More


The Production‐Push Factors: The Political Economy of Labor Shedding

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

in Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199286119
eISBN:
9780191604089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286116.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter analyzes the economic ‘push’ factors that lead to early exit from work. Some firms co-sponsor early retirement via occupational pensions in order to facilitate restructuring. ... More


Conclusion: From Path Dependence to Path Departure?

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

in Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199286119
eISBN:
9780191604089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286116.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This concluding chapter summarizes the main findings of the book, evaluating the protection-oriented ‘pull’ and production-oriented ‘push’ approaches to explain the long-term development and ... More


Restructuring Retirement Risks

David Blitzstein, Olivia S. Mitchell, and Stephen P. Utkus (eds)

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199204656
eISBN:
9780191603822
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199204659.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

This book posits that retirement security is the central policy concern of our time. A generation of ‘Baby Boomers’ is on the verge of retirement, yet pension systems confront crushing challenges, ... More


Reorienting Retirement Risk Management

Robert L. Clark and Olivia S. Mitchell (eds)

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199592609
eISBN:
9780191594618
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199592609.001.0001
Subject:
Business and Management, Pensions and Pension Management

Retirement risk management must be dramatically overhauled if workers and retirees are to better prepare themselves to meet future retirement challenges. Recent economic events including the global ... More


Chapter Chapter Understanding the Uncertainties of Retirement

David Blitzstein, Olivia S. Mitchell, and Stephen P. Utkus

in Restructuring Retirement Risks

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199204656
eISBN:
9780191603822
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199204659.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

An aging-population tsunami is sweeping the world, and capital markets have buffeted pension plans while retiree healthcare care costs rise without letup. This coincidence of shocks marks a crucial ... More


Chapter Chapter The Role of 401(k) Accumulations in Providing Future Retirement Income

Sarah Holden and Jack VanDerhei

in Restructuring Retirement Risks

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199204656
eISBN:
9780191603822
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199204659.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

As defined contribution plans are increasingly being offered as the primary employer-sponsored pension, it is of interest to ask whether these accumulations are likely to yield sufficient retirement ... More


The Importance of Default Options for Retirement Saving Outcomes: Evidence from the USA *

John Beshears, James J. Choi, David Laibson, and Brigitte C. Madrian

in Lessons from Pension Reform in the Americas

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199226801
eISBN:
9780191710285
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199226801.003.0004
Subject:
Business and Management, Pensions and Pension Management

If transaction costs are small, standard economic theory would suggest that defaults have little impact on economic outcomes. Agents with well-defined preferences will opt out of any default that ... More


Managing Retirement Payouts: Positioning, Investing, and Spending Assets

John Ameriks and Olivia S. Mitchell

in Recalibrating Retirement Spending and Saving

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199549108
eISBN:
9780191720734
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199549108.003.0001
Subject:
Business and Management, Pensions and Pension Management

As Baby Boomers move into their 60s, they are focusing policymaker and media attention on how their generation will manage the retirement phase of their lifetime. This book acknowledges that many, ... More


Is Retirement Being Remade? Developments in Labor Market Patterns at Older Ages

Sewin Chan and Ann Huff Stevens

in Recalibrating Retirement Spending and Saving

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199549108
eISBN:
9780191720734
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199549108.003.0002
Subject:
Business and Management, Pensions and Pension Management

This chapter investigates non-traditional work and retirement patterns among older individuals in the Health and Retirement Study. It first reviews the evidence on retirements that initially involve ... More


Efficient Retirement Financial Strategies

William F. Sharpe, Jason S. Scott, and John G. Watson

in Recalibrating Retirement Spending and Saving

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199549108
eISBN:
9780191720734
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199549108.003.0009
Subject:
Business and Management, Pensions and Pension Management

Today's retirees face the daunting task of determining appropriate investment and spending strategies for their accumulated savings. Financial economists have addressed their problem using an ... More


The Origins of the Ownership Society: How the Defined Contribution Paradigm Changed America

Edward A. Zelinsky

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195339352
eISBN:
9780199855407
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195339352.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Employment Law

President Bush's vision of an “ownership society” continues the process of the last three decades by which the defined contribution paradigm has become the primary framework for retirement savings ... More


Social Security Reform

Peter A. Diamond

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199247899
eISBN:
9780191697692
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199247899.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics, Public and Welfare

Social security systems are being reviewed and changed in many countries around the world. This book considers some of the key policy issues for design of a social security reform, as well as ... More


Cohort Differences in Retirement Expectations and Realizations

Brigitte Madrian, Olivia S. Mitchell, and Beth J. Soldo

in Redefining Retirement: How Will Boomers Fare?

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199230778
eISBN:
9780191710971
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230778.003.0002
Subject:
Business and Management, Pensions and Pension Management

This chapter compares retirement expectations, retirement patterns, and expectations of future work across different cohorts of the Health and Retirement Study, including the new cohort of Baby ... More


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