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Digital Applications in Defense of the Nation

James W. Cortada

in The Digital Hand, Vol 3: How Computers Changed the Work of American Public Sector Industries

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195165869
eISBN:
9780199868025
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195165869.003.0003
Subject:
Business and Management, Business History

The US Department of Defense (DoD) is one of the largest users of computers and telecommunications in the world and the largest within the federal government. The story of how the DoD promoted the ... More


Structural Adjustment and Sustainable Development

López Ramón and Michael A. Toman

in Economic Development and Environmental Sustainability: New Policy Options

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199298006
eISBN:
9780191603877
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199298009.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

Empirical studies show extraordinarily high rates of return to investments in human and environmental public goods. This chapter demonstrates empirically, however, that the majority of governments in ... More


AT&T, BT, and NTT: A Comparison of Vision, Strategy, Competence, Path‐Dependency, and R&D

Martin Fransman

in Visions of Innovation: The Firm and Japan

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198289357
eISBN:
9780191596261
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198289359.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

AT&T, BT, and NTT are the largest telecommunications service providers in the USA, UK, and Japan, respectively, and until the mid‐1980s, the three companies were monopoly suppliers of ... More


Military and Commercial Aircraft

Vernon W. Ruttan

in Is War Necessary for Economic Growth?: Military Procurement and Technology Development

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195188042
eISBN:
9780199783410
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195188047.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The aircraft industry was unique among modern U.S. manufacturing industries in that a government research and development organization, the National Committee on Aeronautics (NACA), was established ... More


Public Goods, Public Gains: Calculating the Social Benefits of Public R&D

Albert N. Link and John T. Scott

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199729685
eISBN:
9780199894697
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199729685.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This book discusses the systematic application of alternative evaluation methods to estimate the social benefits of publicly-financed research and development (R&D). The book argues that economic ... More


The Science and Technology System

Marcela Miozzo and Vivien Walsh

in International Competitiveness and Technological Change

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780199259236
eISBN:
9780191717901
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199259236.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic Systems

This chapter considers the main source of innovation: research and development (R&D) activity. It examines where the inventions and innovations come from in terms of the countries that specialize in ... More


Not Your Father's University

David B. Audretsch

in Entrepreneurial Society

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195183504
eISBN:
9780199783885
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183504.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The view regarding the role of universities has changed dramatically in the entrepreneurial society. There are several reasons for the emergence of the university as an engine of economic growth. The ... More


Continuously Improving

Donald J. Peurach

in Seeing Complexity in Public Education: Problems, Possibilities, and Success for All

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199736539
eISBN:
9780199914593
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199736539.003.0021
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter examines SFAF’s work improving its programs and its organization, all while supporting a state-sized system of schools operating in turbulent environments. Rather than a conventional ... More


The Scientific and Military Spy Networks

Paul Maddrell

in Spying on Science: Western Intelligence in Divided Germany 1945-1961

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199267507
eISBN:
9780191708404
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267507.003.0007
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter begins by discussing the targets and methods in the field of scientific espionage. It explains that a key factor of containment was having enough military force to deter Soviet ... More


Innovation about Innovating: The Unlikely Innovation System: The State, Corporate Business, Universities, and Hackers

Manuel Castells and Pekka Himanen

in The Information Society and the Welfare State: The Finnish Model

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199256990
eISBN:
9780191698415
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199256990.003.0003
Subject:
Business and Management, Information Technology

An essential element for a country to attain productivity growth is innovation. This chapter discusses the various strategies that Finland introduced in order to develop its innovation system and ... More


Science, Technological Advance and Economic Growth

Richard R. Nelson and Nathan Rosenberg

in The Dynamic Firm: The Role of Technology, Strategy, Organization, and Regions

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198296041
eISBN:
9780191596070
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198296045.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

Approaches the firm from the perspective of its critical role in contributing to overall economic growth, addressing the broad question of technological advance and how it comes about. The ... More


The Laboratory and the Workshop

TOM BURNS and G. M. STALKER

in The Management of Innovation

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198288787
eISBN:
9780191684630
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198288787.003.0008
Subject:
Business and Management, Innovation, Organization Studies

This chapter discusses research and development in laboratories and ‘research departments’. Research and development refers to the use and cost of technical information as an industrial resource, as ... More


Autarkic Large Companies

Robert Kneller

in Bridging Islands: Venture Companies and the Future of Japanese and American Industry

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199268801
eISBN:
9780191699283
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199268801.003.0002
Subject:
Business and Management, International Business, Innovation

This chapter explores the tendency of large established Japanese companies to innovate autarkicly, that is, to rely on their own in-house R&D laboratories for new prototype products and to try to ... More


Integrated Solutions to Complex Problems: Transforming Japanese Science and Technology

Masaru Yarime

in Japan: The Precarious Future

Published in print:
1953
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9781479889389
eISBN:
9781479830893
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9781479889389.003.0010
Subject:
Sociology, Economic Sociology

Japan caught up with the West by initially importing scientific knowledge, adapting it to local circumstances, learning from trial and error, and then innovating better technologies. With the rise of ... More


R&D and firm performance

Albert N. Link and Donald S. Siegel

in Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and Technological Change

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199268825
eISBN:
9780191699290
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199268825.003.0004
Subject:
Business and Management, Innovation, Strategy

As discussed in Chapter 3, investments in R&D are positively related to total factor productivity (TFP) or productivity growth. Stated differently, empirical studies have consistently found a ... More


Foundations in Education, Research, and Development

Sinan Koont

in Sustainable Urban Agriculture in Cuba

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780813037578
eISBN:
9780813042114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813037578.003.0004
Subject:
Society and Culture, Latin American Studies

After 1959, Cuba's higher-education system expanded greatly. In addition, many institutions (BTJ, ANIR, FCT, SCIT, etc.) were established to encourage technological innovation. Science education was ... More


Prescription for Change: The Looming Crisis in Drug Development

Michael Kinch

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9781469630625
eISBN:
9781469630649
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469630625.001.0001
Subject:
Business and Management, Innovation

The introduction of new medicines has dramatically improved the quantity and quality of individual and public health while contributing trillions of dollars to the global economy. In spite of these ... More


How the Government Created the Pharmaceutical Industry

Robert I. Field

in Mother of Invention: How the Government Created "Free-Market" Health Care

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199746750
eISBN:
9780199354528
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199746750.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

The pharmaceutical industry, perennially one of the most profitable,requires a steady flow of biomedical research to develop new products. However, investment in basic scienceis difficult for private ... More


Telecom Manufacturing, Research and Development, Software Development, and Outsourcing

Varadharajan Sridhar

in The Telecom Revolution in India: Technology, Regulation, and Policy

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780198075530
eISBN:
9780199081042
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198075530.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter covers the hardware industry in the areas of network equipment, cables and transmission, hardware components, and handsets. The growth of this outsourcing and the recent advancements in ... More


A Vision of the Japanese Innovation System and How It Works

Martin Fransman

in Visions of Innovation: The Firm and Japan

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198289357
eISBN:
9780191596261
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198289359.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

The chapter begins with a summary of the innovation process in Japanese companies, paying particular attention to several distinctive Japanese forms of organization, such as the lifetime employment ... More


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