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Digital Applications in Defense of the Nation

James W. Cortada

in The Digital Hand, Vol 3: How Computers Changed the Work of American Public Sector Industries

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195165869
eISBN:
9780199868025
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195165869.003.0003
Subject:
Business and Management, Business History

The US Department of Defense (DoD) is one of the largest users of computers and telecommunications in the world and the largest within the federal government. The story of how the DoD promoted the ... More


Structural Adjustment and Sustainable Development

López Ramón and Michael A. Toman

in Economic Development and Environmental Sustainability: New Policy Options

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199298006
eISBN:
9780191603877
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199298009.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

Empirical studies show extraordinarily high rates of return to investments in human and environmental public goods. This chapter demonstrates empirically, however, that the majority of governments in ... More


AT&T, BT, and NTT: A Comparison of Vision, Strategy, Competence, Path‐Dependency, and R&D

Martin Fransman

in Visions of Innovation: The Firm and Japan

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198289357
eISBN:
9780191596261
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198289359.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

AT&T, BT, and NTT are the largest telecommunications service providers in the USA, UK, and Japan, respectively, and until the mid‐1980s, the three companies were monopoly suppliers of ... More


Military and Commercial Aircraft

Vernon W. Ruttan

in Is War Necessary for Economic Growth?: Military Procurement and Technology Development

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195188042
eISBN:
9780199783410
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195188047.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The aircraft industry was unique among modern U.S. manufacturing industries in that a government research and development organization, the National Committee on Aeronautics (NACA), was established ... More


Public Goods, Public Gains: Calculating the Social Benefits of Public R&D

Albert N. Link and John T. Scott

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199729685
eISBN:
9780199894697
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199729685.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This book discusses the systematic application of alternative evaluation methods to estimate the social benefits of publicly-financed research and development (R&D). The book argues that economic ... More


Not Your Father's University

David B. Audretsch

in Entrepreneurial Society

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195183504
eISBN:
9780199783885
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183504.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The view regarding the role of universities has changed dramatically in the entrepreneurial society. There are several reasons for the emergence of the university as an engine of economic growth. The ... More


The Science and Technology System

Marcela Miozzo and Vivien Walsh

in International Competitiveness and Technological Change

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780199259236
eISBN:
9780191717901
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199259236.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic Systems

This chapter considers the main source of innovation: research and development (R&D) activity. It examines where the inventions and innovations come from in terms of the countries that specialize in ... More


Continuously Improving

Donald J. Peurach

in Seeing Complexity in Public Education: Problems, Possibilities, and Success for All

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199736539
eISBN:
9780199914593
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199736539.003.0021
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter examines SFAF’s work improving its programs and its organization, all while supporting a state-sized system of schools operating in turbulent environments. Rather than a conventional ... More


The Scientific and Military Spy Networks

Paul Maddrell

in Spying on Science: Western Intelligence in Divided Germany 1945-1961

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199267507
eISBN:
9780191708404
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267507.003.0007
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter begins by discussing the targets and methods in the field of scientific espionage. It explains that a key factor of containment was having enough military force to deter Soviet ... More


Innovation about Innovating: The Unlikely Innovation System: The State, Corporate Business, Universities, and Hackers

Manuel Castells and Pekka Himanen

in The Information Society and the Welfare State: The Finnish Model

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199256990
eISBN:
9780191698415
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199256990.003.0003
Subject:
Business and Management, Information Technology

An essential element for a country to attain productivity growth is innovation. This chapter discusses the various strategies that Finland introduced in order to develop its innovation system and ... More


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