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Occupying Armies and Civilian Populations in Nineteenth‐Century Europe

Karma Nabulsi

in Traditions of War: Occupation, Resistance and The Law

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294078
eISBN:
9780191599972
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198294077.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This is the second of three chapters that set out the differing contexts through which the dilemma in the laws of war over the distinction between lawful and unlawful combatants can be viewed: ... More


The Use of Weapons and the Law of Targeting

William H. Boothby

in Weapons and the Law of Armed Conflict

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199569946
eISBN:
9780191705250
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199569946.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter outlines the targeting and related rules that apply when weapons are used in the course of an international armed conflict. The rules are based on articles 48 to 60 of Additional ... More


Social Dislocation during the Ruhr Crisis: Soldiers, Moral Challenges, and Education

Conan Fischer

in The Ruhr Crisis 1923-1924

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198208006
eISBN:
9780191716607
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198208006.003.0007
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter investigates the conduct of the French and Belgian armies of occupation, concluding that whilst brutality was never encouraged at a higher level, many individual garrisons or soldiers ... More


Weapons and the Environment

William H. Boothby

in Weapons and the Law of Armed Conflict

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199569946
eISBN:
9780191705250
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199569946.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

The chapter starts by explaining the legal position on environmental protection before 1976. Texts of early treaties are considered to see how far, though not referring to the environment directly, ... More


After the Fall: German Policy in Occupied France, 1940-1944

Thomas J. Laub

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199539321
eISBN:
9780191715808
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199539321.001.0001
Subject:
History, Military History, European Modern History

After signing an armistice agreement on 22 June 1940, Adolf Hitler placed the German army in charge of occupied France and ordered the military government to supervise the Vichy regime and maintain ... More


Lawbreaker or Lawmaker? Britain and International Law on the Use of Force

Nigel D. White

in Democracy goes to War: British Military Deployments under International Law

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199218592
eISBN:
9780191705595
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199218592.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Public International Law

This chapter gives an account of the current debate on the international rules governing the use of military force, its approach differs from the normal approach in that seeks to discern the rules ... More


First Measures

Thomas J. Laub

in After the Fall: German Policy in Occupied France, 1940-1944

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199539321
eISBN:
9780191715808
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199539321.003.0005
Subject:
History, Military History, European Modern History

Historical precedents and international agreements provided scant protect to the inhabitants of an occupied territory during World War II. Although noble in design, the Hague Convention used vague ... More


Transitions

Thomas J. Laub

in After the Fall: German Policy in Occupied France, 1940-1944

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199539321
eISBN:
9780191715808
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199539321.003.0008
Subject:
History, Military History, European Modern History

After Otto von Stülpnagel resigned in early 1942, Hitler appointed Carl‐Heinrich von Stülpnagel to serve as military commander, reorganized the German chain of command, placed the SS in charge of ... More


Reprisals and Rewards

S. P. Mackenzie

in The Colditz Myth: British and Commonwealth Prisoners of War in Nazi Germany

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199203079
eISBN:
9780191695469
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199203079.003.0008
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Military History

Under the terms of the Geneva Convention, individuals in enemy hands were subject to well-defined penalties for acts of misconduct that mirrored those in place within the captor's armed forces. At ... More


The Black and Tans: British Police and Auxiliaries in the Irish War of Independence, 1920-1921

D. M. Leeson

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199598991
eISBN:
9780191730597
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199598991.001.0001
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, Military History

This is the story of the Black and Tans and Auxiliaries — the most notorious police forces in the history of the British Isles. During the Irish War of Independence (1920–1), the British government ... More


Cyclical Violence: The Irish Insurrection and the Limits of Enchantment

Sarah Cole

in At the Violet Hour: Modernism and Violence in England and Ireland

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780195389616
eISBN:
9780199979226
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195389616.003.0004
Subject:
Literature, 20th-century Literature and Modernism, 20th-century and Contemporary Literature

This chapter takes as its scope the substantial canon of Irish literature in the first decades of the twentieth century that engaged intimately with violence. It argues that the expression of ... More


Britain’s ‘Dirty Wars’?

David French

in The British Way in Counter-Insurgency, 1945-1967

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199587964
eISBN:
9780191731365
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199587964.003.0006
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, Military History

It was never government policy to allow the security forces to take their own reprisals, but charges were frequently levelled against them that they did so. Sometimes such charges were deliberately ... More


Introduction

D M. Leeson

in The Black and Tans: British Police and Auxiliaries in the Irish War of Independence, 1920-1921

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199598991
eISBN:
9780191730597
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199598991.003.0001
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, Military History

During the Irish War of Independence (1920–1) the British government recruited thousands of British ex-servicemen to serve as constables in the Royal Irish Constabulary, while also raising a ... More


‘The dark hours are dreaded’: The War of Independence in West Galway

D M. Leeson

in The Black and Tans: British Police and Auxiliaries in the Irish War of Independence, 1920-1921

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199598991
eISBN:
9780191730597
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199598991.003.0003
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, Military History

This chapter provides a brief general narrative of the Irish War of Independence from the summer of 1920 to the summer of 1921, along with a more detailed local narrative of the struggle in West ... More


‘Come out, Sinn Fein!’: Analysing Police Reprisals

D. M. Leeson

in The Black and Tans: British Police and Auxiliaries in the Irish War of Independence, 1920-1921

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199598991
eISBN:
9780191730597
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199598991.003.0007
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, Military History

This chapter analyses police reprisals, using evidence from a range of sources, and shows that, in many ways, police violence resembled guerrilla violence. Like the level of guerrilla provocation, ... More


The Devil’s Work: Explaining Police Reprisals

D. M. Leeson

in The Black and Tans: British Police and Auxiliaries in the Irish War of Independence, 1920-1921

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199598991
eISBN:
9780191730597
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199598991.003.0008
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, Military History

This chapter discusses the causes of police reprisals. Frustrated by their inability to defeat their enemies in battle, and embittered by their inability to convict them in court; terrorized by the ... More


Conclusion

D M. Leeson

in The Black and Tans: British Police and Auxiliaries in the Irish War of Independence, 1920-1921

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199598991
eISBN:
9780191730597
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199598991.003.0009
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, Military History

This chapter begins by providing a brief summary of the book’s answers to the questions posed in its introduction, and then goes on to show how the Irish case was far from unique. Social ... More


The Problems and Modalities of Punishing a State

Nina H. B. Jørgensen

in The Responsibility of States for International Crimes

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198298618
eISBN:
9780191685491
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198298618.003.0017
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter considers the possible consequences of state crimes, ranging from punishment to the milder regime of responsibility considered by the International Law Commission. It also discusses the ... More


Civil Rights, Free Speech, and Group Libel

Cheryl Greenberg

in Minority Relations: Intergroup Conflict and Cooperation

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9781496810458
eISBN:
9781496810496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Mississippi
DOI:
10.14325/mississippi/9781496810458.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Race and Ethnicity

This chapter examines the contrasting efforts of organizations representing two marginalized groups, blacks and Jews, to counter defamation. In the end, civil rights advocates from both groups came ... More


Riots, Revels, and Reprisals

Nicholas Rogers

in Mayhem: Post-War Crime and Violence in Britain, 1748-53

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300169621
eISBN:
9780300189063
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300169621.003.0006
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

This chapter discusses the different aspects of the riots, revels, and reprisals by the servicemen in England. One of the great puzzles of the mid-century crime wave is why it engendered such a panic ... More


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