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Learning

Brian Skyrms

in Signals: Evolution, Learning, and Information

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199580828
eISBN:
9780191722769
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199580828.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language, Philosophy of Science

This chapter argues that investigation of reinforcement learning is a complement to the study of belief learning, rather than being a ‘dangerous antagonist’. It begins at the low end of the scale, to ... More


The Adaptive Control of Thought

John R. Anderson

in How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195324259
eISBN:
9780199786671
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195324259.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures

The entire cerebral cortex projects down to the basal ganglia that plays an important role in coordinating cognition. These structures serve as the repository for our procedural knowledge. They have ... More


Model-Based Reinforcement Learning as Cognitive Search: Neurocomputational Theories

Nathaniel D. Daw

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0012
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

One oft-envisioned function of search is planning actions (e.g., by exploring routes through a cognitive map). Yet, among the most prominent and quantitatively successful neuroscentific theories of ... More


Neurocomputational Analysis of Dopamine Function

Daniel Durstewitz

in Dopamine Handbook

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195373035
eISBN:
9780199865543
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195373035.003.0018
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, History of Neuroscience

Current computational models of dopamine (DA) modulation have worked either from a more abstract neuroalgorithmic level, starting with specific assumptions about DA's computational role and then ... More


Reinforcement learning mechanisms in the human brain: Insights from model-based fMRI

John P O'Doherty

in Neuroimaging of Human Memory: Linking cognitive processes to neural systems

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199217298
eISBN:
9780191696077
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199217298.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures

This chapter discusses evidence for the applicability of reinforcement learning models to reward-learning and reward-based action selection in humans, with a particular emphasis on data derived from ... More


The Basics of Dopamine: How We Learn and Store Value

Paul W. Glimcher

in Foundations of Neuroeconomic Analysis

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199744251
eISBN:
9780199863433
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744251.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Neuropsychology

This chapter reviews the anatomy of the neural circuits associated with dopamine and valuation; presents theories of reinforcement learning from psychology and computer science that predate ... More


Reinforcement and Regret

H. Peyton Young

in Strategic Learning and its Limits

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199269181
eISBN:
9780191699375
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199269181.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

Reinforcement is an empirical principle which states that the higher the payoff from taking an action in the past, the more likely it will be taken in the future. This approach has long occupied a ... More


SSL: A Theory of How People Learn to Select Strategies

Jörg Rieskamp and Philipp E. Otto

in Heuristics: The Foundations of Adaptive Behavior

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199744282
eISBN:
9780199894727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744282.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

The assumption that people possess a repertoire of strategies to solve the inference problems they face has been raised repeatedly. However, a computational model specifying how people select ... More


Decision-making

Edmund T. Rolls

in Memory, Attention, and Decision-Making: A Unifying Computational Neuroscience Approach

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199232703
eISBN:
9780191724046
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232703.003.0010
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter looks at selection of mainly autonomic responses and their classical conditioning. Selection of approach or withdrawal, and their classical conditioning are also mentioned. It then goes ... More


Behavioral and Neural Variability Related to Stochastic Choices during a Mixed-Strategy Game

Daeyeol Lee and Hyojung Seo

in The Dynamic Brain: An Exploration of Neuronal Variability and Its Functional Significance

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195393798
eISBN:
9780199897049
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393798.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Development

Behavioral performance of humans and other animals and the neural activity related to various behaviors commonly display substantial variability, but the relationship between these two different ... More


. Biological Cognition–Memory and Learning

C. Eliasmith, X. Choo, T. Bekolay, and Chris Eliasmith

in How to Build a Brain: A Neural Architecture for Biological Cognition

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199794546
eISBN:
9780199345236
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794546.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter is devoted to consideration of adaptive processes in neural processing. This adaptation includes both weight changes (what is usually meant by ‘learning’), and dynamic stability of ... More


Reinforcement Learning, Conflict Monitoring, and Cognitive Control: An Integrative Model of Cingulate-Striatal Interactions and the ERN

Jeffrey Cockburn and Michael Frank

in Neural Basis of Motivational and Cognitive Control

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016438
eISBN:
9780262298490
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016438.003.0017
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter proposes a model in which the activity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is modulated in part by reinforcement learning processes in the basal ganglia. It describes how this ... More


Putting Mechanisms into Behavioral Ecology

Alex Kacelnik

in Evolution and the Mechanisms of Decision Making

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018081
eISBN:
9780262306027
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018081.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter contrasts two approaches to the study of mechanism and function in decision making: rules of thumbs (or heuristics) and the contributions of experimental psychology and psychophysics. ... More


The Role of Value Systems in Decision Making

Peter Dayan

in Better Than Conscious?: Decision Making, the Human Mind, and Implications For Institutions

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262195805
eISBN:
9780262272353
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262195805.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Values, rewards, and costs play a central role in economic, statistical, and psychological notions of decision making. They also have surprisingly direct neural realizations. This chapter discusses ... More


The Evolutionary Biology of Decision Making

Jeffrey R. Stevens

in Better Than Conscious?: Decision Making, the Human Mind, and Implications For Institutions

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262195805
eISBN:
9780262272353
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262195805.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Evolutionary and psychological approaches to decision making remain largely separate endeavors. Each offers necessary techniques and perspectives which, when integrated, will aid the study of ... More


Neural Correlates of Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning

José J. F. Ribas-Fernandes, Yael Niv, and Matthew M. Botvinick

in Neural Basis of Motivational and Cognitive Control

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016438
eISBN:
9780262298490
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016438.003.0016
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter discusses the relevance of reinforcement learning (RL) to its hierarchical structure. It first reviews the fundamentals of RL, with a focus on temporal-difference learning in ... More


Programs via Reinforcement

Dana H. Ballard

in Brain Computation as Hierarchical Abstraction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780262028615
eISBN:
9780262323819
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028615.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

The learning of cognitive programs faces many technical difficulties, but the most important is the valuation of programs that have delayed rewards. The algorithms of Reinforcement Learning that the ... More


The reinforcement memory systems of early animals

Elisabeth A. Murray, Steven P. Wise, and Kim S. Graham

in The Evolution of Memory Systems

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780199686438
eISBN:
9780191766312
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199686438.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Development

The reinforcement memory systems evolved early in the history of animals. Through these ancient mechanisms, animals can remember which actions in which circumstances produced benefits or avoided ... More


An Integrative Theory of Anterior Cingulate Cortex Function: Option Selection in Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning

Clay B. Holroyd and Nick Yeung

in Neural Basis of Motivational and Cognitive Control

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016438
eISBN:
9780262298490
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016438.003.0018
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter discusses a new integrative theory of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) function that proposes that the dorsal ACC supports the selection and execution of coherent behaviors over extended ... More


The Advice of Others: When and How We Benefit From It

Guido Biele and Jörg Rieskamp

in Simple Heuristics in a Social World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780195388435
eISBN:
9780199950089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388435.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Social learning is fundamental to human cultural evolution and an important aspect of social rationality. This chapter examines how advice influences decision making and learning. A brief review of ... More


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