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Why Think?: Evolution and the Rational Mind

Ronald de Sousa

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195189858
eISBN:
9780199868377
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189858.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

In a world where natural selection has shaped adaptations of astonishing ingenuity, what is the scope and unique power of rational thinking? This book looks at the twin set of issues surrounding the ... More


Introduction

Ronald de Sousa

in Why Think?: Evolution and the Rational Mind

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195189858
eISBN:
9780199868377
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189858.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This introductory chapter begins with a discussion of the concept of rationality. It then discusses the difference between digital computers and analog computers, the origins and limits of ... More


THE RATIONALITY OF PARA-COGNITIVE ATTITUDES

Ingmar Persson

in The Retreat of Reason: A dilemma in the philosophy of life

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199276905
eISBN:
9780191603198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199276900.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter explains that according to subjectivism, a desire can be rationally required only relative to some other desire. Thus, only derivative desires can be rationally required; intrinsic ... More


The Assessment of Rational Thought

Keith E. Stanovich, Richard F. West, and Maggie E. Toplak

in Rationality and the Reflective Mind

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195341140
eISBN:
9780199894307
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195341140.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures

The data presented in this book indicate that the rankings of individuals on assessments of rational thinking would be different from rankings on intelligence. At present, of course, there is no ... More


Denying Divinity: Apophasis in the Patristic Christian and Soto Zen Buddhist Traditions

J. P. Williams

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198269991
eISBN:
9780191683855
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198269991.001.0001
Subject:
Religion, Theology, World Religions

The classical texts of Christianity and Zen Buddhism contain resources with potent appeal to contemporary spirituality. The ‘apophatic’, or ‘negative’, may offer a means to integrate the conservation ... More


Differentiating the Algorithmic Mind and the Reflective Mind

Keith E. Stanovich

in Rationality and the Reflective Mind

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195341140
eISBN:
9780199894307
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195341140.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures

This chapter argues that it is useful to distinguish the algorithmic level of processing from the reflective level when discussing Type 2 processing. Individual differences in the former reflect the ... More


A Taxonomy of Rational Thinking Problems

Richard F. West

in Rationality and the Reflective Mind

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195341140
eISBN:
9780199894307
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195341140.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures

This chapter uses the tri-process model and other distinctions introduced in the book to develop a taxonomy of rational thinking errors that have been revealed in the heuristics and biases ... More


Why We Can't Understand Thought from the Outside

Thomas Nagel

in The Last Word

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195149838
eISBN:
9780199872206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195149831.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, General

In Nagel's view, any challenge to reason involves reason and implicitly authorizes the use of reason. Separating the idea of reason from the idea that its results must carry absolute certainty, Nagel ... More


The Social Implications of Separating the Concepts of Intelligence and Rationality

Keith E. Stanovich

in Rationality and the Reflective Mind

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195341140
eISBN:
9780199894307
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195341140.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures

This chapter explores the social consequences of the modest association between rational thinking and intelligence. It argues that an understanding of the implications of the modest association helps ... More


A Parliament of Souls: Limits and Renewals 2

Stephen R. L. Clark

Published in print:
1990
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198242369
eISBN:
9780191680458
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198242369.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

This book is part of a trilogy based on the Stanton Lectures in the Philosophy of Religion delivered at the University of Cambridge in 1986–8. This second volume attempts to restate a traditional ... More


Why Obey the Laws of Logic?

Robert Fogelin

in Walking the Tightrope of Reason: The Precarious Life of a Rational Animal

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195177541
eISBN:
9780199850143
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195177541.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, General

A polarity takes place at the deepest possible level, the acceptance or rejection of what is often considered the fundamental principle of rational thinking—the law of noncontradiction. This law, ... More


The Rationality Quotient: Toward a Test of Rational Thinking

Keith E. Stanovich, Richard F. West, and Maggie E. Toplak

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780262034845
eISBN:
9780262336819
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262034845.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This book shows that rational thinking, like intelligence, is a measurable cognitive competence. Drawing on theoretical work and empirical research from the last two decades, The Rationality Quotient ... More


Rationality and the Reflective Mind

Keith Stanovich

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195341140
eISBN:
9780199894307
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195341140.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures

This book attempts to resolve the Great Rationality Debate in cognitive science—the debate about how much irrationality to ascribe to human cognition. It shows how the insights of dual-process theory ... More


Rationality and Intelligence: Empirical and Theoretical Relationships and Implications for the Great Rationality Debate

Keith E. Stanovich

in Rationality and the Reflective Mind

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195341140
eISBN:
9780199894307
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195341140.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures

Having sketched out a model of how and when cognitive ability associates with heuristics and biases tasks in Chapters 6 and 7, this chapter uses the model to summarize the empirical findings on the ... More


Hedonism and Ultimate Good

Henry Sidgwick

in Essays on Ethics and Method

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198250234
eISBN:
9780191598432
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198250231.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

In this chapter, Sidgwick discusses the connection between value and psychology. Sidgwick points out that while ancient philosophers were concerned with the proper ultimate object of rational thought ... More


Introduction: Objective Rules of Thought

Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa and Benjamin W. Jarvis

in The Rules of Thought

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199661800
eISBN:
9780191748325
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199661800.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind

This introductory chapter begins by suggesting how philosophical anti-exceptionalism—the view that good philosophical inquiry is continuous with good inquiry considered more broadly—can be fruitfully ... More


Rational Animals?

Susan Hurley and Matthew Nudds (eds)

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198528272
eISBN:
9780191689529
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528272.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This book focuses on one of the major debates in science today — how closely does mental processing in animals resemble mental processing in humans? It addresses the ... More


Enraged: Why Violent Times Need Ancient Greek Myths

Emily Katz Anhalt

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780300217377
eISBN:
9780300231762
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300217377.001.0001
Subject:
Literature, Criticism/Theory

Millennia ago, Greek myths exposed the dangers of violent rage and the need for empathy and self-restraint. Homer's Iliad, Euripides' Hecuba, and Sophocles' Ajax show that anger and vengeance destroy ... More


Not of the World: Human Exceptionalism in Western Tradition

Anna L. Peterson

in Being Human: Ethics, Environment, and Our Place in the World

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520226548
eISBN:
9780520926059
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520226548.003.0004
Subject:
Anthropology, Anthropology, Theory and Practice

This chapter examines the principle of human exceptionalism and the established Christian and modernist narratives of human uniqueness. It explains that these worldviews usually posit a definitive ... More


Are Dreams Deceptive Experiences? Deception, Delusion, and Insight

Jennifer M. Windt

in Dreaming: A Conceptual Framework for Philosophy of Mind and Empirical Research

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780262028677
eISBN:
9780262327466
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028677.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

The chapter confronts the epistemological problem of dream deception with evidence of scientific dream research with the aim of investigating the empirical plausibility of different scenarios of ... More


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