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Randomness in Evolution

John Tyler Bonner

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691157016
eISBN:
9781400846429
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691157016.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This book challenges a central tenet of evolutionary biology. The book makes the bold and provocative claim that some biological diversity may be explained by something other than natural selection. ... More


Regulating ‘Village Life’ In Central Government

Christopher Hood, Colin Scott, Oliver James, George Jones, and Tony Travers

in Regulation Inside Government: Waste-Watchers, Quality Police, and Sleazebusters

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198280996
eISBN:
9780191599491
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198280998.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, UK Politics

Examines the practices of regulation over central government. It starts from the observation that control based on mutuality has traditionally been of central importance and assesses the extent to ... More


Regulating the Regulators: Policies for Reform

Christopher Hood, Colin Scott, Oliver James, George Jones, and Tony Travers

in Regulation Inside Government: Waste-Watchers, Quality Police, and Sleazebusters

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198280996
eISBN:
9780191599491
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198280998.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, UK Politics

Examines the overall pattern of different forms of control – oversight, mutuality, competition and contrived randomness – and suggests that each could be used more effectively to secure public ... More


Envoi

John Tyler Bonner

in Randomness in Evolution

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691157016
eISBN:
9781400846429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691157016.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter summarizes key themes and presents some final thoughts. It argues that randomness is necessary to counteract the tremendous power of natural selection. There could be no natural ... More


Martin-Löf randomness and its variants

André Nies

in Computability and Randomness

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199230761
eISBN:
9780191710988
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230761.003.0003
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This chapter begins with a general background on how to introduce mathematical randomness notions. It then studies the central randomness notion of Martin–Löf, and gives some connections to ... More


Control and Regulation in Public Management

Christopher Hood

in The Art of the State: Culture, Rhetoric, and Public Management

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198297659
eISBN:
9780191599484
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198297653.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

In Chapters 2–3 of the Introduction, the cultural‐theory framework is used to explore two central problems of public management—the analysis of the characteristic ways in which different forms of ... More


Doing Public Management the Fatalist Way?

Christopher Hood

in The Art of the State: Culture, Rhetoric, and Public Management

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198297659
eISBN:
9780191599484
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198297653.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

In the four chapters of Part II, public management ideas that loosely correspond to each of the four polar world views identified by cultural theory are discussed; here the cultural‐theory framework ... More


Lowness properties and K-triviality

André Nies

in Computability and Randomness

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199230761
eISBN:
9780191710988
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230761.003.0005
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This chapter shows the equivalence of K-triviality and lowness for Martin–Löf randomness. This coincidence extends to other lowness properties, such as being a base for Martin–Löf randomness, and ... More


Randomness and betting strategies

André Nies

in Computability and Randomness

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199230761
eISBN:
9780191710988
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230761.003.0007
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

Martingales form the mathematical counterpart of betting strategies. This chapter studies computable randomness, where the tests are computable martingales, and separates it from both Martin–Löf ... More


Higher computability and randomness

André Nies

in Computability and Randomness

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199230761
eISBN:
9780191710988
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230761.003.0009
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

After a brief introduction to higher computability theory, tools from this area are used to obtain mathematical notions of randomness. Many directions from the previous chapters are revisited in this ... More


Life and the Riddle of Randomness

John Tyler Bonner

in Randomness in Evolution

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691157016
eISBN:
9781400846429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691157016.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter first discusses the concept of randomness and its role in evolution. Unlike natural selection which carves out novelties that lead to evolution, randomness seems to go nowhere; it just ... More


Time, Size, and Complexity

John Tyler Bonner

in Randomness in Evolution

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691157016
eISBN:
9781400846429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691157016.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses the evolution of size. It describes the increase in size and complexity over geological time, from multicellularity (cell societies) to animal societies, with an attempt to ... More


Small Organisms and Neutral Morphologies

John Tyler Bonner

in Randomness in Evolution

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691157016
eISBN:
9781400846429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691157016.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter reviews how morphological randomness is dealt with at different size levels, beginning with eukaryotic microorganisms, where we see the greatest amount of morphological randomness in ... More


The Evolution of the Decrease of Randomness

John Tyler Bonner

in Randomness in Evolution

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691157016
eISBN:
9781400846429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691157016.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter explains why randomness is curtailed in larger forms. Large organisms are unlikely to have an overall neutral morphology like small ones, and the reason is to be found in their elaborate ... More


An Exception: Where Small Organisms Suppress Randomness

John Tyler Bonner

in Randomness in Evolution

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691157016
eISBN:
9781400846429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691157016.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses how the sexual cycle varies in a general way depending on the size and complexity of organisms. Natural selection has burnished the sexual system so that in each generation the ... More


The Division of Labor: Two Cases of the Return of Randomness in Higher Forms

John Tyler Bonner

in Randomness in Evolution

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691157016
eISBN:
9781400846429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691157016.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses two cases where, in cell and insect societies, there is a small reversal, and randomness is brought back to the fore to play a key role in their respective developments. During ... More


Avian Invasions: The Ecology and Evolution of Exotic Birds

Tim M. Blackburn, Julie L. Lockwood, and Phillip Cassey

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199232543
eISBN:
9780191715983
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232543.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ornithology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

As people have spread around the world, they have taken with them a broad range of other species to satisfy a variety of human needs. Some of these species went on to establish wild populations well ... More


Transport and Introduction

Tim M. Blackburn, Julie L. Lockwood, and Phillip Cassey

in Avian Invasions: The Ecology and Evolution of Exotic Birds

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199232543
eISBN:
9780191715983
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232543.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Ornithology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter considers the first two steps on the invasion pathway: transport and introduction. It starts by summarizing why what we know about the history of avian invasions leads us to expect ... More


Diagonally noncomputable functions

André Nies

in Computability and Randomness

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199230761
eISBN:
9780191710988
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230761.003.0004
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This chapter motivates the interaction from randomness to computability. As an example of this interaction it shows how to use Martin–Löf randomness to give a simple injury-free solution to Post's ... More


Classes of computational complexity

André Nies

in Computability and Randomness

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199230761
eISBN:
9780191710988
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230761.003.0008
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This chapter studies lowness properties of sets not necessarily below the halting problem. The main new notions are all related to traceability. It characterizes lowness for Schnorr, and computable ... More


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