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The Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group: a brief history of results to date

Sarah Darby, Christina Davies, and Paul McGale

in Celebrating Statistics: Papers in honour of Sir David Cox on his 80th birthday

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198566540
eISBN:
9780191718038
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566540.003.0010
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter describes the collaborative efforts and statistical results obtained in four five-year cycles of collection and analysis of individual patient data concerning breast cancer mortality. ... More


Evidence-Based Medicine

John S. Haller

in Shadow Medicine: The Placebo in Conventional and Alternative Therapies

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231169042
eISBN:
9780231537704
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231169042.003.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter recounts the emergence of orthodox medicine. Medical care and medical education emerged as a scientific enterprise in the last quarter of the nineteenth century, with the help of the ... More


Equipoise and the Dilemma of Randomized Clinical Trials

Steven Joffe

in The Ethical Challenges of Human Research: Selected Essays

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199896202
eISBN:
9780190267681
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199896202.003.0017
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter argues that clinical equipoise does not offer sound ethical guidance regarding the appropriateness of randomized clinical trials as tools to generate the knowledge needed for drug ... More


Cancer on Trial: Oncology as a New Style of Practice

Peter Keating and Alberto Cambrosio

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226428918
eISBN:
9780226428932
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226428932.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Until the early 1960s, cancer treatment consisted primarily of surgery and radiation therapy. Most practitioners then viewed the treatment of terminally ill cancer patients with heroic courses of ... More


Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes: Accomplishments and Challenges

William C. Knowler, Mary Hoskin, Jeffrey M. Curtis, Robert G. Nelson, and Robert L. Hanson

in Diabetes Public Health: From Data to Policy

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195317060
eISBN:
9780199871544
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195317060.003.0015
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the prevention of type 2 diabetes. People at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes can often be identified with simple clinical tests. Many of the risk factors—such as ... More


More Trials and Some Tribulations

Michael B. Bracken

in Risk, Chance, and Causation: Investigating the Origins and Treatment of Disease

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300188844
eISBN:
9780300189551
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300188844.003.0005
Subject:
History, Environmental History

This chapter presents and discusses a scenario wherein randomized clinical trials do not work. Some of the problems it looks at include patients discussing their experimental treatment with other ... More


Begin with ‘If…’

William A. Silverman

in Where's the Evidence?: Debates in Modern Medicine

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192630889
eISBN:
9780191723568
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192630889.003.0009
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents a 1989 commentary on randomized clinical trials. It argues that given the uncertainties about the wide extrapolation of results after any and all formal clinical studies, it ... More


Use of Experimental Designs in Community Settings

Jorge Delva, Paula Allen-Meares, and Sandra L. Momper

in Cross-Cultural Research

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195382501
eISBN:
9780199777419
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195382501.003.0005
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

This chapter illustrates how a community-based two-armed randomized clinical trial (RCT) was designed and implemented with low-income African American women who were mothers of young children (under ... More


Shadow Medicine: The Placebo in Conventional and Alternative Therapies

John Haller

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231169042
eISBN:
9780231537704
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231169042.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Can evidence-based medicine (EBM) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) find common ground? This book explores the epistemological foundations of EBM and the challenges these conceptual ... More


Coverage with evidence development: Ethical issues and policy implications

Steven D. Pearson

in The Ethical Challenges of Human Research: Selected Essays

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199896202
eISBN:
9780190267681
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199896202.003.0021
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter examines the ethical issues and policy implications of coverage with evidence development (CED). CED is an approach that grants Medicare coverage for a new medical intervention provided ... More


Sham surgery: An ethical analysis

Frankling G. Miller

in The Ethical Challenges of Human Research: Selected Essays

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199896202
eISBN:
9780190267681
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199896202.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter examines the ethics of sham surgery by focusing on a published report of a sham-controlled trial of arthroscopic surgery for osteoarthritis of the knee. From a methodological ... More


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