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Strategies to Approximate Random Sampling and Assignment

Patrick Dattalo

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195378351
eISBN:
9780199864645
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195378351.001.0001
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

Random sampling (RS) and random assignment (RA) are considered by many researchers to be the definitive methodological procedures for maximizing external and internal validity. However, there is a ... More


Three principles of observational design

Marian Stamp Dawkins

in Observing Animal Behaviour: design and analysis of quantitative data

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198569350
eISBN:
9780191717512
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569350.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

The same principles that apply to the design of experiments also apply to the design of an observational study, but instead of manipulating the animals, the observer controls the way he or she takes ... More


In Praise of Randomisation: The Importance of Causality in Medicine and its Subversion by Philosophers of Science

DAVID COLQUHOUN

in Evidence, Inference and Enquiry

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780197264843
eISBN:
9780191754050
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264843.003.0012
Subject:
Sociology, Methodology and Statistics

The job of scientists is to try to distinguish what is true from what is false by means of observation and experiment. That job has been made difficult by some philosophers of science who appear to ... More


 Mixing Things Up

Ken Binmore

in Playing for Real: Game Theory

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780195300574
eISBN:
9780199783748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195300574.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

This chapter develops the idea of a mixed strategy using the entry into a sealed-bid auction as a non-trivial example. Reaction curves are first illustrated for the case of pure strategies and then ... More


Mendelian randomization: the contribution of genetic epidemiology to elucidating environmentally modifiable causes of disease

George Davey Smith and Shah Ebrahim

in Human Genome Epidemiology, 2nd Edition: Building the evidence for using genetic information to improve health and prevent disease

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195398441
eISBN:
9780199776023
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195398441.003.0021
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Conventional risk factor epidemiology — directly studying environmentally modifiable exposures that may influence disease risk — and genetic epidemiology have similarities and differences. The ... More


Analysis of Population-Based Survey Experiments

Diana C. Mutz

in Population-Based Survey Experiments

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691144511
eISBN:
9781400840489
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691144511.003.0007
Subject:
Sociology, Social Research and Statistics

This chapter addresses three common problems that emerge in the analysis stage. These include the misguided practice of doing randomization checks, whether and how to use survey weights, and the use ... More


Statistical Alternatives and Supplements to Random Sampling

Patrick Dattalo

in Strategies to Approximate Random Sampling and Assignment

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195378351
eISBN:
9780199864645
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195378351.003.0003
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

This chapter describes the following alternatives and complements to RS in terms of their assumptions, implementations, strengths, and weaknesses: (1) randomization tests; (2) multiple imputation; ... More


Randomization in Decision-Making

ROBERT V. DODGE

in Schelling's Game Theory: How to Make Decisions

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199857203
eISBN:
9780199932597
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199857203.003.0020
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Behavioural Economics

This chapter considers randomization, beginning with its history as “fairness” in making decisions. It then examines “mixed strategies” and von Neumann's Minimax Theorem. A segment from Poe's The ... More


Research designs for evaluation studies

Carolyn Emery

in Sports Injury Research

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199561629
eISBN:
9780191722479
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199561629.003.013
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

A multitude of study designs are used in order to establish the efficacy of a preventive measure, e.g. randomised controlled trials, time-trend analyses, prospective trials, etc. Each method has its ... More


Conclusion

Neil Duxbury

in Random Justice: On Lotteries and Legal Decision-Making

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198268253
eISBN:
9780191683466
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198268253.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

This book has illustrated the advantages and drawbacks of chance and randomized social decision-making, claiming that arguments concerning such decision-making more often than not require ... More


Randomization and the mechanics of treatment masking

Curtis L. Meinert and Susan Tonascia

in Clinical Trials: Design, Conduct and Analysis

Published in print:
1986
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195035681
eISBN:
9780199864478
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195035681.003.0010
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

A valid trial requires a method for assigning patients to a test or control treatment that is free of selection bias. The best method for ensuring bias-free selection is a bona fide randomization ... More


The Virtues of Randomization

in Against Prediction: Profiling, Policing, and Punishing in an Actuarial Age

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226316130
eISBN:
9780226315997
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226315997.003.0010
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

The critiques set forth in this book reflect problems with the actuarial approach more generally—not just with specific types of stereotyping or profiles. This chapter sketches the contours and ... More


Preferences

William A. Silverman

in Where's the Evidence?: Debates in Modern Medicine

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192630889
eISBN:
9780191723568
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192630889.003.0023
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents a 1993 commentary on treatment choices for neonates. It considers a proposed observational study dubbed as a ‘preference trial’: the systematic follow up of patient cohorts ... More


Confounding

J. Mark Elwood

in Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529552
eISBN:
9780191723865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.003.06
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Confounding is the most challenging issue in the interpretation of studies. This chapter is divided into three parts. The first part defines confounding and shows what effects it can produce. The ... More


Introduction

Curtis L. Meinert

in An Insider’s Guide to Clinical Trials

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199742967
eISBN:
9780199897278
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199742967.003.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

This introductory chapter begins with a brief description of the origins of the term clinical trial and the concept of randomization. It then details the development of modern-day clinical trials, ... More


Essential design features of a controlled clinical trial

Curtis L. Meinert and Susan Tonascia

in Clinical Trials: Design, Conduct and Analysis

Published in print:
1986
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195035681
eISBN:
9780199864478
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195035681.003.0008
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the general principles underlying selection of study treatment, the choice of the outcome measure, and the roles of randomization and masking in data collection.


Patient recruitment and enrollment

Curtis L. Meinert and Susan Tonascia

in Clinical Trials: Design, Conduct and Analysis

Published in print:
1986
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195035681
eISBN:
9780199864478
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195035681.003.0014
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter focuses on recruitment. Topics discussed include recruitment goals, methods of patient recruitment, troubleshooting, the patient shake-down process, the ethics of recruitment, patient ... More


Questions concerning the design, analysis, and interpretation of clinical trials

Curtis L. Meinert and Susan Tonascia

in Clinical Trials: Design, Conduct and Analysis

Published in print:
1986
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195035681
eISBN:
9780199864478
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195035681.003.0019
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter contains a list of questions and short answers concerning the design, analysis, and interpretation of clinical trials. These include questions concerning the study design, the source of ... More


Randomized Trial

Steve Selvin

in Epidemiologic Analysis: A Case-Oriented Approach

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195146189
eISBN:
9780199864720
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195146189.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter evaluates the results of a randomized trial conducted to test the effectiveness of an experimental treatment in slowing the pathological changes in memory caused by Alzheimer's disease. ... More


Choice of experimental design

Sheila Bird

in Effective Sexual Health Interventions: Issues in Experimental Evaluation

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198508496
eISBN:
9780191723797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508496.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter considers the strengths and limitations of a range of evaluation study designs, focusing on the consumer principle of randomization. Although much of the chapter is devoted to randomized ... More


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