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Formal means

Helmut Hofmann

in The Physics of Warm Nuclei: with Analogies to Mesoscopic Systems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780198504016
eISBN:
9780191708480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198504016.003.0026
Subject:
Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

This chapter elucidates various mathematical formulas. Based on expressions for Gaussian integrals in one and many dimensions, the methods of stationary phase and steepest descent are deduced, ... More


Anomalies in Quantum Field Theory

Reinhold A. Bertlmann

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198507628
eISBN:
9780191706400
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198507628.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The anomaly, which forms the central part of this book, is the failure of classical symmetry to survive the process of quantization and regularization. The study of anomalies is the key to a deeper ... More


Interband magneto - optical effects

P. K. Basu

in Theory of Optical Processes in Semiconductors: Bulk and Microstructures

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198526209
eISBN:
9780191706790
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526209.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

The behaviour of a semiconductor in the presence of a high magnetic field is different from its behaviour in the absence of a field discussed so far. This chapter first discusses the effect of a ... More


Skyrmions and Nuclei

Nicholas S. Manton

in The Many Facets of Geometry: A Tribute to Nigel Hitchin

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199534920
eISBN:
9780191716010
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199534920.003.0014
Subject:
Mathematics, Geometry / Topology

This chapter discusses Skyrmions and nuclei. Topics covered include rational map ansatz, Skyrmions and α-particles, and quantization and calibration. For small baryon numbers, the rational map ansatz ... More


Quantized Yang–Mills gauge theories

Richard Healey

in Gauging What's Real: The Conceptual Foundations of Gauge Theories

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199287963
eISBN:
9780191713453
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199287963.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter explains why physics could not rest content with classical Yang-Mills theories, and shows how a classical Yang-Mills field theory may be transformed into a quantum field theory. Quantum ... More


Excitations in Organic Solids

Vladimir Agranovich

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199234417
eISBN:
9780191715426
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199234417.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This book details the studies of the properties of electronic and vibrational excitations in organic solids. It brings together most of the theory in this field together with many illustrations of ... More


Statistics and Collective Properties of Frenkel Excitons

Vladimir M. Agranovich

in Excitations in Organic Solids

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199234417
eISBN:
9780191715426
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199234417.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter describes the approximate second quantization and approximate transition to boson picture. Using exact transformation from paulions to bosons, the collective properties of an ideal ... More


QUANTUM DESCRIPTION OF LIGHT

Alexey V. Kavokin and Jeremy J. Baumberg

in Microcavities

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199228942
eISBN:
9780191711190
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228942.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter presents the basic principles of quantum optics. It starts from recalling the main elements of quantum mechanics in Heisenberg and Schroedinger interpretations, then the creation and ... More


Practical Quantum Mechanics: Modern Tools and Applications

Efstratios Manousakis

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
December 2015
ISBN:
9780198749349
eISBN:
9780191813474
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198749349.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

The book contains lectures notes for a graduate two-semester course in quantum mechanics. It differs from other quantum mechanics textbooks as various parts of the book are inspired by rather recent ... More


The Problem of Time In Quantum Geometrodynamics

Karel Kuchař

in The Arguments of Time

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197263464
eISBN:
9780191734748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197263464.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter describes the problem of time in quantum geometrodynamics in more detail. It first describes how the fundamental equation of general relativity can be written as an instantaneous law, ... More


CHERN–SIMONS THEORY AND KNOT INVARIANTS

Marcos Mariño

in Chern-Simons Theory, Matrix Models, and Topological Strings

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198568490
eISBN:
9780191717604
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568490.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter presents various aspects of Chern-Simons theory. In a groundbreaking paper, Witten (1989) showed that Chern-Simons gauge theory, which is a quantum field theory in three dimensions, ... More


QUANTUM THEORY OF PHOTONS AND THE PHASE OPERATOR

Kazuo Fujikawa and Hiroshi Suzuki

in Path Integrals and Quantum Anomalies

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198529132
eISBN:
9780191712821
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529132.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter presents the essence of the quantization of the electromagnetic field and its path integral representation. The electromagnetic field is the simplest example of a gauge field, and its ... More


Quantization of the free electromagnetic field

Efstratios Manousakis

in Practical Quantum Mechanics: Modern Tools and Applications

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
December 2015
ISBN:
9780198749349
eISBN:
9780191813474
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198749349.003.0029
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter, in a manner analogous to that used to quantize the one-dimensional chain of atoms coupled via spring-like constants to its neighboring atoms (see Chapter 28), it will quantize the ... More


Realism about Agents: Resources

Paul Weirich

in Realistic Decision Theory: Rules for Nonideal Agents in Nonideal Circumstances

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2004
ISBN:
9780195171259
eISBN:
9780199834976
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019517125X.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

In some decision problems, even after reflection, relevant probabilities and utilities are indeterminate. Then a rational decision maximizes utility with respect to a quantization of beliefs and ... More


Structure, Individuality, and Quantum Gravity

John Stachel

in The Structural Foundations of Quantum Gravity

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199269693
eISBN:
9780191699436
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199269693.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter reviews various interpretations of structural realism and then adopts a definition that allows both relations between things that are already individuated (‘relations between things’) ... More


Quantized Fields and Coherent States

Stephen C. Rand

in Lectures on Light: Nonlinear and Quantum Optics using the Density Matrix

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199574872
eISBN:
9780191722219
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574872.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

Chapter 6 begins by transforming the optical wave itself into a quantized form, and the full implications of the wave‐particle duality of Chapter 2 become clear. The electric field may be pictured as ... More


Theory of Optical Processes in Semiconductors: Bulk and Microstructures

P. K. Basu

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198526209
eISBN:
9780191706790
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526209.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

Semiconductor optoelectronic devices are at the heart of all information generation and processing systems and are likely to be essential components of future optical computers. With more emphasis on ... More


Ballistic electron transport in quantum point contacts

Thomas Ihn

in Semiconductor Nanostructures: Quantum states and electronic transport

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199534425
eISBN:
9780191715297
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199534425.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter contrasts the results of Chapter 10 with the theory of ballistic transport through quantum point contacts. It discusses the experimental observation of conductance quantization based on ... More


Identical Particles: Individuation and Modality 1

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Quantum Mechanics: An Empiricist View

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198239802
eISBN:
9780191597466
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198239807.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter aims to place the discussion of holism in quantum theory generally and of the problem of identical particles and quantum statistics specifically in the context of general philosophy. ... More


Introduction

Victor M. Ustinov, Alexey E. Zhukov, Anton Yu. Egorov, and Nikolai A. Maleev

in Quantum Dot Lasers

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198526797
eISBN:
9780191712081
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526797.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This introductory chapter considers the basic principles of operation of diode lasers. The condition of inverse population in semiconductors is derived from Fermi statistics. Light confinement in a ... More


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