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The Old Bolsheviks, Socialist Construction, and the Purges, 1923–1937

Evan Mawdsley and Stephen White

in The Soviet Elite from Lenin to Gorbachev: The Central Committee and its Members 1917-1991

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198297383
eISBN:
9780191599842
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198297386.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Russian Politics

After 1923 the size of the Central Committee increased, but membership was still overwhelmingly made up of pre‐1917 party members or Old Bolsheviks. The system of ‘job‐slot representation’ quickly ... More


An Evolving Elite

Evan Mawdsley and Stephen White

in The Soviet Elite from Lenin to Gorbachev: The Central Committee and its Members 1917-1991

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198297383
eISBN:
9780191599842
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198297386.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Russian Politics

Across the years of its existence, the USSR witnessed three elite revolutions: in 1917, when the Tsarist elite was replaced by a Bolshevik elite of professional revolutionaries; during the Purges, ... More


The Politics of Memory and Democratization

Alexandra Barahona De Brito, Carmen Gonzalez Enriquez, and Paloma Aguilar (eds)

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240906
eISBN:
9780191598869
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240906.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

The book explores how new democracies face an authoritarian past and past human rights violations, and the way in which policies of truth and justice shape the process of democratization. Eighteen ... More


The ‘Eusebians’ in Action

David M. Gwynn

in The Eusebians: The Polemic of Athanasius of Alexandria and the Construction of the `Arian Controversy'

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199205554
eISBN:
9780191709425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199205554.003.0007
Subject:
Religion, Early Christian Studies

This chapter examines Athanasius’ presentation of the ‘Eusebians’ in action, particularly in the Historia Arianorum and the other works of his third exile (356-62). Those actions include the writing ... More


Introduction

Alexandra Barahona de Brito, Carmen González‐Enríquez, and Paloma Aguilar

in The Politics of Memory and Democratization

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240906
eISBN:
9780191598869
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240906.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

The general aim of this book is to shed light on how countries deal with legacies of repression during a transition from authoritarian or totalitarian rule to democratic rule. Two broad kinds of ... More


Settling Accounts With the Past in a Troubled Transition to Democracy: The Portuguese Case

António Costa Pinto

in The Politics of Memory and Democratization

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240906
eISBN:
9780191598869
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240906.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

The military coup of 25 April 1974 in Portugal initiated the ‘third wave’ of democratic transitions in southern Europe. The transition and subsequent process of democratic consolidation evolved in ... More


De‐Communization and Political Justice in Central and Eastern Europe

Carmen González‐Enríquez

in The Politics of Memory and Democratization

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240906
eISBN:
9780191598869
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240906.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

An exploration is made of the nature and scope of de-communization and political justice in Czechoslovakia (the Czech Republic, Slovakia), Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland and Hungary, to each of ... More


East Germany: Incorporation, Tainted Truth, and the Double Division

Jan‐Werner Müller

in The Politics of Memory and Democratization

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240906
eISBN:
9780191598869
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240906.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

The East German case of transitional justice is unique in more ways than one: whereas in other Central and Eastern European countries dictatorships disappeared, in East Germany the country ... More


Seeking the Formula, 1938–1939

Simon Morrison

in The People's Artist: Prokofiev's Soviet Years

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195181678
eISBN:
9780199870806
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195181678.003.0003
Subject:
Music, History, Western

This chapter chronicles Prokofiev's activities from the spring of 1938 to the winter of 1939, a period that witnessed the loss of his ability to travel abroad, the arrest (at the height of the ... More


O Purgatorium Caeleste!: Purging Body and Soul at St. Martin’s Shrine

Isabel Moreira

in Heaven's Purge: Purgatory in Late Antiquity

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199736041
eISBN:
9780199894628
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199736041.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, Early Christian Studies

This chapter examines how the cult of martyrs and saints promoted ideal responses to corporeal affliction. It examines the purging miracles recorded at the shrine of St. Martin of Tours, where ... More


From Nazi Re-Annexation to Full Citizenship: The Final Stage of Nationalization, 1940–6

Elizabeth Vlossak

in Marianne or Germania?: Nationalizing Women in Alsace, 1870-1946

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199561117
eISBN:
9780191595035
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199561117.003.0007
Subject:
History, European Modern History

After France's defeat in June 1940, Alsace was re-annexed by Nazi Germany and incorporated into the Third Reich. An intensive policy to Germanize, de-Frenchify and Nazify the people of Alsace was ... More


The Decontamination of Madrid: The Purges of Civil Servants, Professionals, and Others

JULIUS RUIZ

in Franco's Justice: Repression in Madrid after the Spanish Civil War

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199281831
eISBN:
9780191712999
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199281831.003.0006
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter discusses the implementation of the meticulously planned occupational purges in Madrid after 28 March 1939. The influence of the LPR in this ‘cleansing’ process is evident as commissions ... More


Getting Fired

John Merriman

in Police Stories: Building the French State, 1815-1851

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195072532
eISBN:
9780199867790
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195072532.003.0004
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter discusses the dismissal of commissaire de police, the nightmare of révocation. The Revolutions of 1830 and 1848, bringing about a change in regime and, in the latter case, the Second ... More


Milton and the Commonwealth

Blair Worden

in Literature and Politics in Cromwellian England

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199230822
eISBN:
9780191696480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230822.003.0011
Subject:
Literature, 17th-century and Restoration Literature, Milton Studies

John Milton and Marchamont Nedham agreed that Pride's Purge and the regicide, the emergency measures, had delivered England from a return to tyranny. So long as the royalist military threat survived, ... More


Milton and Cromwell

Blair Worden

in Literature and Politics in Cromwellian England

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199230822
eISBN:
9780191696480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230822.003.0012
Subject:
Literature, 17th-century and Restoration Literature, Milton Studies

The civil wars, which ended persecution by the bishops, raised, in John Milton's perspective, ‘new forcers of conscience’: ‘new presbyter’, which is ‘but old priest writ large’. At Pride's Purge the ... More


Post-war Reconstructions

CHUSHICHI TSUZUKI

in The Pursuit of Power in Modern Japan 1825–1995

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198205890
eISBN:
9780191676840
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198205890.003.0018
Subject:
History, World Modern History, Political History

The seven years of the American occupation of Japan can be divided into two periods: the period of reform devoted to the adoption of measures for ‘demilitarization and democratization’; and the ... More


The Collapse of the Republican Alliance

Ronald Hutton

in The Restoration: A Political and Religious History of England and Wales, 1658–1667

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198203926
eISBN:
9780191676048
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198203926.003.0004
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History, History of Religion

The new regime called itself a Parliament, and took to itself not only the legislative and judicial functions associated with that institution, but also the policy-making function of a monarch or ... More


Transformations, 1934–1937

George C. Browder

in Hitler's Enforcers: The Gestapo and the SS Security Service in the Nazi Revolution

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195104790
eISBN:
9780199854462
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195104790.003.0004
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter analyzes Gestapo operations and personnel and offers insights into the more significant, functional forces at work in their transformation. The personnel changes that Heinrich Himmler ... More


Speaker and Audience Construction

Jeanne Fahnestock

in Rhetorical Style: The Uses of Language in Persuasion

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199764129
eISBN:
9780199918928
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199764129.003.0014
Subject:
Linguistics, Applied Linguistics and Pedagogy

Language evolved for communication, so it has “built in” features that respond to the givens of human discourse. Part III, beginning with this chapter, covers the language choices that acknowledge ... More


The Demise of the Army

Henry Reece

in The Army in Cromwellian England, 1649-1660

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780198200635
eISBN:
9780191746284
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198200635.003.0011
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History, Military History

The downfall of the army in England in 1659–60 has never been satisfactorily explained. Traditional interpretations focus on a ‘divided interest’ between officers and soldiers, the ambition of the ... More


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