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Prebiotic Chemistry, the Primordial Replicator, and Modern Protocells

Henderson James Cleaves II

in Protocells: Bridging Nonliving and Living Matter

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262182683
eISBN:
9780262282093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262182683.003.0026
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This chapter examines the origin of cell ancestors. It focuses on the principles shared by both naturally evolved and manmade protocells. The chapter examines the emergence hereditary molecules, ... More


The Allure of Machinic Life: Cybernetics, Artificial Life, and the New AI

John Johnston

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262101264
eISBN:
9780262276351
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262101264.001.0001
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

This book examines new forms of nascent life that emerge through technical interactions within human-constructed environments—“machinic life”—in the sciences of cybernetics, artificial life, and ... More


Protocells: Bridging Nonliving and Living Matter

Steen Rasmussen, Mark A. Bedau, Liaohai Chen, David Deamer, David C. Krakauer, Norman H. Packard, and Peter F. Stadler (eds)

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262182683
eISBN:
9780262282093
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262182683.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This book offers a comprehensive resource on current attempts to create simple forms of life from scratch in the laboratory. These minimal versions of cells, known as protocells, are entities with ... More


The Ethics of Protocells: Moral and Social Implications of Creating Life in the Laboratory

Mark A. Bedau and Emily C. Parke (eds)

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012621
eISBN:
9780262255301
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012621.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

Teams of scientists around the world are racing to create protocells—microscopic, self-organizing entities that spontaneously assemble from simple organic and inorganic materials. The creation of ... More


The Ambivalence of Protocells: Challenges for Self-Reflexive Ethics

Brigitte Hantsche-Tangen

in The Ethics of Protocells: Moral and Social Implications of Creating Life in the Laboratory

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012621
eISBN:
9780262255301
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012621.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

This chapter deals with the public’s role in decision making about new technologies is a contentious issue. It highlights the difficulty of giving due weight to societal values when making decisions ... More


This is Not a Hammer: On Ethics and Technology

Mickey Gjerris

in The Ethics of Protocells: Moral and Social Implications of Creating Life in the Laboratory

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012621
eISBN:
9780262255301
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012621.003.0015
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

This chapter highlights that enlisting the help of professional ethicists will not eliminate the ethical problems raised by protocells but might, in fact, magnify them. It concentrates on two very ... More


Methodological Considerations about the Ethical and Social Implications of Protocells

Giovanni Boniolo

in The Ethics of Protocells: Moral and Social Implications of Creating Life in the Laboratory

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012621
eISBN:
9780262255301
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012621.003.0017
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

This chapter addresses methodological preliminaries in order to influence the logically and rhetorically correct argumentative framework. It specifically explores the strategies along which the ... More


Introduction to the Ethics of Protocells

Mark A. Bedau and Emily C. Parke

in The Ethics of Protocells: Moral and Social Implications of Creating Life in the Laboratory

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012621
eISBN:
9780262255301
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012621.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

This book promotes an open and responsible process of evaluating the prospect of protocells. It can foster constructive reflection and discussion that will help stakeholders become informed and ... More


New Technologies, Public Perceptions, and Ethics

Brian Johnson

in The Ethics of Protocells: Moral and Social Implications of Creating Life in the Laboratory

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012621
eISBN:
9780262255301
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012621.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

This chapter argues for the wisdom of proactive engagement with stakeholders. It examines the possible public attitudes toward new technologies for constructing protocells. This chapter shows that ... More


Social and Ethical Implications of Creating Artificial Cells

Mark A. Bedau and Mark Triant

in The Ethics of Protocells: Moral and Social Implications of Creating Life in the Laboratory

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012621
eISBN:
9780262255301
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012621.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

This chapter explores the worries that protocells are inherently bad because they are unnatural, that they violate the sanctity of life, or that their creators are “playing God.” It notes that making ... More


The Acceptability of the Risks of Protocells

Carl Cranor

in The Ethics of Protocells: Moral and Social Implications of Creating Life in the Laboratory

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012621
eISBN:
9780262255301
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012621.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

This chapter describes how society perceives the risk of protocells, using examples from the chemical and genomics industries to draw conclusions about the perceived acceptability of protocell ... More


The Early History of Protocells: The Search for the Recipe of Life

Martin M. Hanczyc

in Protocells: Bridging Nonliving and Living Matter

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262182683
eISBN:
9780262282093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262182683.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This book discusses the methods and conditions to produce protocells. The production of a protocell requires the combination of an appropriate mix of nonliving molecules, let them react, and ... More


Experimental Approaches to Fabricating Artificial Cellular Life

David Deamer

in Protocells: Bridging Nonliving and Living Matter

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262182683
eISBN:
9780262282093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262182683.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This chapter provides a historical overview of experimental attempts to create protocells. It discusses the first cell models and their important contributions to protocell research. These include ... More


Population Analysis of Liposomes with Protein Synthesis and a Cascading Genetic Network

Takeshi Sunami, Kanetomo Sato, Keitaro Ishikawa, and Tetsuya Yomo

in Protocells: Bridging Nonliving and Living Matter

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262182683
eISBN:
9780262282093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262182683.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This chapter discusses the assembly of a minimal self-replicating protocell. It centers on the minimal thermodynamic coupling between the three functional structures: container, metabolism, and ... More


The Core of a Minimal Gene Set: Insights from Natural Reduced Genomes

Toni Gabaldón, Rosario Gil, Juli Peretó, Amparo Latorre, and Andrés Moya

in Protocells: Bridging Nonliving and Living Matter

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262182683
eISBN:
9780262282093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262182683.003.0016
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This chapter explores the potential of peptic nucleic acids (PNAs) as prebiotic and abiotic genetic material. It first presents basic PNA chemistry and illustrates its close similarity with protein. ... More


Parasitism and Protocells: Tragedy of the Molecular Commons

Jeffrey J. Tabor, Matthew Levy, Zachary Booth Simpson, and Andrew D. Ellington

in Protocells: Bridging Nonliving and Living Matter

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262182683
eISBN:
9780262282093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262182683.003.0017
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This chapter describes the top-down approach of simplifying small or minimal genomes to construct an artificial cell. First, it discusses the concept of minimal genomes. This is followed by an ... More


Forming the Essential Template for Life: The Physics of Lipid Self-Assembly

Ole G. Mouritsen and Ask F. Jakobsen

in Protocells: Bridging Nonliving and Living Matter

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262182683
eISBN:
9780262282093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262182683.003.0018
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This chapter focuses on the nature of parasitism and its relationship with cellularization. It discusses the theoretical treatment of parasitism and provides experimental examples of parasitism of ... More


Energetics, Energy Flow, and Scaling in Life

William H. Woodruff

in Protocells: Bridging Nonliving and Living Matter

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262182683
eISBN:
9780262282093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262182683.003.0021
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This chapter gives an overview of the origin of life, with particular attention to transition from ergodicity to contingency. It also considers physical insights from dynamical self-organization in ... More


Gánti’s Chemoton Model and Life Criteria

James Griesemer and Eörs Szathmáry

in Protocells: Bridging Nonliving and Living Matter

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262182683
eISBN:
9780262282093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262182683.003.0022
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This chapter discusses the basic energetics of the living state. The main energy sources used by living systems, such as photochemistry, thermally activated electron transfer, fermentation, and ... More


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