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Self-Regulation of Courageous Bystander Interventions

Kai J. Jonas

in On Behalf of Others: The Psychology of Care in a Global World

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195385557
eISBN:
9780199864669
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385557.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology

This chapter contends that the interaction of situational and individual factors has been overlooked by the literature on courageous bystander interventions as it often fails to consider the ... More


Health and the Ecology of Altruism

David Sloan Wilson and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

in Altruism and Health: Perspectives from Empirical Research

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195182910
eISBN:
9780199786794
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195182910.003.0021
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology

This chapter tests an ecological and evolutionary hypothesis of the fitness of altruists, using the Sloan Study of Youth and Social Development, which includes information on a large sample of ... More


Altruism and Health: Is There a Link During Adolescence?

Peter L. Benson, E. Gil Clary, and Peter C. Scales

in Altruism and Health: Perspectives from Empirical Research

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195182910
eISBN:
9780199786794
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195182910.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology

The links between prosocial action and health in adolescence have not been a central area of inquiry in the social sciences. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of literature that provides some ... More


A Cooperative Species

Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis

in A Cooperative Species: Human Reciprocity and Its Evolution

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151250
eISBN:
9781400838837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151250.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

This book examines the cultural, biological and other processes that explain how humans evolved into an exceptionally cooperative species. It advances two propositions, the first of which deals with ... More


Socioeconomic, Peer, School, and Community Factors

David P. Farrington and Brandon C. Welsh

in Saving Children from a Life of Crime: Early Risk Factors and Effective Interventions

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195304091
eISBN:
9780199944071
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195304091.003.0016
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter examines the importance of socioeconomic factors as predictors of offending and reviews peer, school, and community influences. The findings reveal that offenders usually come from ... More


The Developmental Relations between Perspective Taking and Prosocial Behaviors: A Meta-Analytic Examination of the Task-Specificity Hypothesis

Gustavo Carlo, George P. Knight, Meredith McGinley, Rebecca Goodvin, and Scott C. Roesch

in Self- and Social-Regulation: Exploring the Relations Between Social Interaction, Social Understanding, and the Development of Executive Functions

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195327694
eISBN:
9780199776962
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195327694.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Given the multidimensional nature of both perspective taking and prosocial behaviors, the authors advance an information processing position that attending to characteristics of tasks used to assess ... More


Patterns of Abrahamic Reconciliation: Act, Ritual, and Symbol as Transformation

Marc Gopin

in Holy War, Holy Peace: How Religion Can Bring Peace to the Middle East

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195146509
eISBN:
9780199834235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195146506.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

One of the central challenges facing cultural and religious peacemaking is the self‐imposed wall around ethnic and religious identities, particularly in terms of the deliberate circumscription of ... More


Social Identifications and Pro-Social Activity in Poland

Katarzyna Hamer and Jakub Gutowski

in On Behalf of Others: The Psychology of Care in a Global World

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195385557
eISBN:
9780199864669
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385557.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology

Globalization has opened up the possibility of widening an individual’s sense of belonging to broader and perhaps more abstract commonalities, such as Europe or humanity. The more locally bounded ... More


Toward a Pluralism of Prosocial Motives—and a More Humane Society

C. Daniel Batson

in Altruism in Humans

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195341065
eISBN:
9780199894222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195341065.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Evidence for empathy-induced altruism poses a challenge to the value assumption of the theory of rational choice. This chapter considers broader theoretical and practical implications of moving ... More


Mental Disorders Across the Life Span and the Role of Executive Function Networks

Michelle C. Carlson, Dana Eldreth, Yi-Fang Chuang, and William W. Eaton

in Public Mental Health

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195390445
eISBN:
9780199950416
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195390445.003.0009
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter considers the relationship of disorders to brain function. It begins by defining executive functions and their importance to prosocial behavior and independent functioning. It then ... More


How It All Adds Up: An Integration

William Ickes

in Strangers in a Strange Lab: How Personality Shapes Our Initial Encounters with Others

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195372953
eISBN:
9780199893317
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195372953.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter re-examines the question of whether “opposites attract” or whether “birds of a feather flock together.” Integration of the findings reported in the previous chapters reveals that ... More


A Scientific Search for Altruism: Do We Only Care About Ourselves?

C. Daniel Batson

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780190651374
eISBN:
9780190651404
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190651374.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This book provides an example of how the scientific method can be used to address a fundamental question about human nature. For centuries—indeed for millennia—the egoism–altruism debate has echoed ... More


Context-Specific Responses to Self-Resembling Faces

Lisa M. DeBruine and Benedict C. Jones

in The Science of Social Vision

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195333176
eISBN:
9780199864324
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195333176.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Vision, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter details the methodological issues surrounding the experimental study of human facial resemblance and reviews experimental evidence from studies using such methods. Facial resemblance was ... More


Contesting Empathy

Suzanne Keen

in Empathy and the Novel

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195175769
eISBN:
9780199851232
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195175769.003.0006
Subject:
Literature, 19th-century and Victorian Literature

This chapter argues that the evidence for a relationship between narrative empathy and the prosocial motivation of actual novel readers does not support the grand claims often made on behalf of ... More


The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly of Electronic Media

Muniba Saleem and Craig A. Anderson

in Using Social Science to Reduce Violent Offending

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195384642
eISBN:
9780199914609
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195384642.003.0033
Subject:
Psychology, Forensic Psychology

This chapter discusses the importance of studying aggression and violence through a risk and protective factor approach; clarifies some common misunderstandings regarding media violence studies; ... More


The Evolution of Uniquely Human Prosocial Behaviors

Dennis L. Krebs

in The Origins of Morality: An Evolutionary Account

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199778232
eISBN:
9780199897261
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199778232.003.0026
Subject:
Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter reviews and evaluates accounts of how the mental mechanisms that dispose people to emit uniquely human forms of prosocial behavior evolved, beginning with Boehm’s proposition that ... More


Psychological and Neurological Sources of Uniquely Human Forms of Prosocial Conduct

Dennis L. Krebs

in The Origins of Morality: An Evolutionary Account

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199778232
eISBN:
9780199897261
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199778232.003.0027
Subject:
Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology, Social Psychology

In this chapter, it is argued that because uniquely-human forms of prosocial conduct stem from mechanisms in the human brain, understanding how the brain evolved supplies a basis for understanding ... More


Human Nature and the Nature of Morality

Dennis L. Krebs

in The Origins of Morality: An Evolutionary Account

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199778232
eISBN:
9780199897261
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199778232.003.0034
Subject:
Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter evaluates the extent to which humans meet the criteria of four conceptions of what it means to be moral—conceptions that are defined in terms of good behavior, virtue, moral knowledge or ... More


Empathic Distress Fatigue Rather Than Compassion Fatigue? Integrating Findings from Empathy Research in Psychology and Social Neuroscience

Olga Klimecki and Tania Singer

in Pathological Altruism

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199738571
eISBN:
9780199918669
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199738571.003.0253
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

In this chapter, we discuss the role of empathy as the main precursor for prosocial behavior, taking perspectives that span from social and developmental psychology to social neuroscience. We begin ... More


The Role of Hypo-egoic Self-Processes in Optimal Functioning and Subjective Well-Being

Mark R. Leary and Jennifer Guadagno

in Designing Positive Psychology: Taking Stock and Moving Forward

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195373585
eISBN:
9780199893263
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195373585.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology, Health Psychology

Many phenomena of interest to positive psychology share a common feature that involves a particular pattern of self-relevant cognitive activity. This hypo-egoic state is responsible both for the ... More


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