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Visual Thinking in Mathematics

Marcus Giaquinto

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199285945
eISBN:
9780191713811
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199285945.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

Visual thinking — visual imagination or perception of diagrams and symbol arrays, and mental operations on them — is omnipresent in mathematics. Is this visual thinking merely a psychological aid, ... More


Reductive Logic and Proof-search: Proof Theory, Semantics, and Control

David J. Pym and Eike Ritter

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198526339
eISBN:
9780191712012
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526339.001.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This a research study about logic. Logic is both part of and has roles in many disciplines, including inter alia, mathematics, computing, and philosophy. The topic covered here — the mathematical ... More


Evidence, Proof, and Fact-Finding in WTO Dispute Settlement

Michelle T. Grando

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199572649
eISBN:
9780191722103
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199572649.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This book examines the process through which a World Trade Organization (WTO) dispute settlement panel formulates its conclusions with respect to the facts of a case, i.e., the process of ... More


Which Rights Should Be Universal?

William Talbott

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780195173475
eISBN:
9780199835331
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195173473.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, General

In this book, William Talbott builds on the work of J.S. Mill, John Rawls, and Jürgen Habermas to develop a new equilibrium model for moral reasoning, in which moral reasoning is primarily bottom-up, ... More


Tracking Reason: Proof, Consequence, and Truth

Jody Azzouni

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195187137
eISBN:
9780199850570
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187137.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

When ordinary people—mathematicians among them—take something to follow (deductively) from something else, they are exposing the backbone of our self-ascribed ability to reason. This book ... More


The Probable and The Provable

L. Jonathan Cohen

Published in print:
1977
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198244127
eISBN:
9780191680748
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198244127.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

The book was planned and written as a single, sustained argument. But earlier versions of a few parts of it have appeared separately. The object of this book is both to establish the existence of the ... More


Functioning of the Burden of Proof

Michelle T Grando

in Evidence, Proof, and Fact-Finding in WTO Dispute Settlement

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199572649
eISBN:
9780191722103
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199572649.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

The previous chapter introduced some basic concepts related to the process of fact-finding and briefly outlined how those concepts are applied in international dispute settlement proceedings, ... More


A Philosophy of Evidence Law: Justice in the Search for Truth

H. L. Ho

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199228300
eISBN:
9780191711336
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228300.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

The dominant approach to evaluating the law of evidence takes the standpoint of a detached observer and focuses on how the trial system should be structured to guard against the production of wrong ... More


The Uses of Sense: Wittgenstein's Philosophy of Language

Charles Travis

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199245871
eISBN:
9780191598630
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199245878.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

The Uses of Sense presents a reading of Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations, concentrating on themes concerning representation, truth, and objectivity. It offers a particular ... More


Introduction

L. Jonathan Cohen

in The Probable and The Provable

Published in print:
1977
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198244127
eISBN:
9780191680748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198244127.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This book tries to show that, if forensic proof in Anglo-American courts is analysed in terms of the mathematical calculus of chance, the anomalies and paradoxes which are generated are too numerous ... More


The Difficulty about Inference upon Inference

L. Jonathan Cohen

in The Probable and The Provable

Published in print:
1977
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198244127
eISBN:
9780191680748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198244127.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter explores the difficulty about inference upon inference. Where a proof in a civil case involves several tiers of inference, the courts normally insist that each tier prior to the final ... More


The Difficulty about Proof beyond Reasonable Doubt

L. Jonathan Cohen

in The Probable and The Provable

Published in print:
1977
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198244127
eISBN:
9780191680748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198244127.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter presents an elaboration on the difficulty about proof beyond reasonable doubt. It is more inclined to hold that a particular conclusion falls short of certainty because there is a ... More


Validity

Graham Priest

in Doubt Truth to be a Liar

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199263288
eISBN:
9780191603631
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199263280.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter provides a general account of the nature of validity, both deductive and non-deductive, which may be accepted depending on what one takes the correct logic to be. It argues against a ... More


Introduction

Jonathan L. Kvanvig

in The Knowability Paradox

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199282593
eISBN:
9780191603587
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199282595.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This introductory chapter begins with a brief overview of the knowability paradox — a paradox deriving from a proof that if all truths are knowable, then all truths are known — which was first ... More


The Paradox

Jonathan L. Kvanvig

in The Knowability Paradox

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199282593
eISBN:
9780191603587
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199282595.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter examines the logical structure of the knowability paradox, presenting the details of the proofs that underlie the paradox, and clarifying which elements of these proofs give rise to ... More


The Problem of Enforcement Error

Randy E. Barnett

in The Structure of Liberty: Justice and the Rule of Law

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198297291
eISBN:
9780191598777
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198297297.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

The problem of enforcement error arises when using power to achieve compliance with justice and the rule of law increases the costs imposed by erroneous judgements on the innocent. Because the use of ... More


Public Management, Rhetoric, and Culture

Christopher Hood

in The Art of the State: Culture, Rhetoric, and Public Management

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198297659
eISBN:
9780191599484
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198297653.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Returns to the general question of what sort of science public management is or can be and how cultural theory can contribute to that science. If public management is (as suggested earlier) dominated ... More


THE SEMANTICS OF INTUITIONISTIC AND CLASSICAL PROOFS

David J. Pym and Eike Ritter

in Reductive Logic and Proof-search: Proof Theory, Semantics, and Control

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198526339
eISBN:
9780191712012
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526339.003.0003
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This chapter gives an account of the semantics of intuitionistic natural deduction proof, based on models of the simply-typed lambda-calculus. A new form of games semantics is introduced that forms ... More


SONG OF THE MASTER IDEA

Mark Wilson

in Wandering Significance: An Essay on Conceptual Behaviour

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199269259
eISBN:
9780191710155
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199269259.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter investigates the implications of these conclusions with respect to rule-following and rigor's implementation. It begins with a survey of common philosophical tensions over these topics ... More


Basic Concepts

Michelle T Grando

in Evidence, Proof, and Fact-Finding in WTO Dispute Settlement

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199572649
eISBN:
9780191722103
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199572649.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter discusses the meaning of basic concepts such as the burden of proof, standard of proof, and presumptions. It explains how those concepts are defined in the common law system, the civil ... More


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