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Talk that Counts: Age, Gender, and Social Class Differences in Discourse

Ronald K. S. Macaulay

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195173819
eISBN:
9780199788361
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195173819.001.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This work is a sociolinguistic study employing quantitative methods to explore age, gender, and social class differences in the use of a range of discourse features. It is based on a gender-balanced ... More


Reference without Referents

R. M. Sainsbury

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199241804
eISBN:
9780191602696
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199241805.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This book concerns the nature of reference, and the theory it develops is intermediate between direct reference theories and descriptivist theories. A guiding thought is that just as truth conditions ... More


Pronouns

Thomas J. McKay

in Plural Predication

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199278145
eISBN:
9780191707971
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199278145.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter focuses on the significance of the account of descriptions for the development of a theory of English pronouns, especially E-type pronouns. The uses of pronouns, pronouns as bound ... More


The Overlapping Distribution of Personal and Demonstrative Pronouns

Donna K. Byron, Sarah Brown-Schmidt, and Michael K. Tanenhaus

in Reference: Interdisciplinary Perspectives

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195331639
eISBN:
9780199867981
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331639.003.0007
Subject:
Linguistics, Semantics and Pragmatics

This chapter explores pragmatic distinctions between personal pronouns such as ‘it’ and demonstrative pronouns such as ‘that’ in English. These two categories of pronoun are typically employed in ... More


Expressive Use

Maximilian de Gaynesford

in I: The Meaning of the First Person Term

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199287826
eISBN:
9780191603570
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199287821.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

I satisfies its expressive use in the deictic mode. It is the expressive use of any singular term to express thoughts. This requires that the speaker know the positive answer to ... More


Communicative Role

Maximilian de Gaynesford

in I: The Meaning of the First Person Term

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199287826
eISBN:
9780191603570
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199287821.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

I fulfils its communicative role in the deictic mode. It is the communicative role of any singular term to communicate thoughts. This requires that the audience know the ... More


Conclusion

Maximilian de Gaynesford

in I: The Meaning of the First Person Term

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199287826
eISBN:
9780191603570
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199287821.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

I has the logical character, inferential role, referential function, expressive use, and communicative role of a deictic term. Uses of I share the referential security and ... More


Logical Character

Maximilian de Gaynesford

in I: The Meaning of the First Person Term

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199287826
eISBN:
9780191603570
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199287821.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

The logical character of I is obligatorily deictic. Some variant devices have obligatory anaphoric reference, some are free, and some again have obligatory deictic reference. It is by singling out ... More


Inferential Role

Maximilian de Gaynesford

in I: The Meaning of the First Person Term

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199287826
eISBN:
9780191603570
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199287821.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

The inferential role of I is irreducibly deictic. The inferential roles of singular terms are distinguished by appeal to the different mechanisms required to guarantee co-reference in a ... More


Referential Function (I)

Maximilian de Gaynesford

in I: The Meaning of the First Person Term

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199287826
eISBN:
9780191603570
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199287821.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

The referential function of any singular term is to provide a positive answer to the question: ‘which individual is being spoken of?’, that is, to achieve determinacy of reference. What enables a ... More


Concluding Remarks

D.N.S. BHAT

in Pronouns

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199230242
eISBN:
9780191710124
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230242.003.0012
Subject:
Linguistics, Semantics and Pragmatics

This chapter provides a summary of the major conclusions of the book, namely (i) using the distinction between personal pronouns and proforms for providing a satisfactory definition for the words ... More


Dissolving Binding Theory

Johan Rooryck and Guido Vanden Wyngaerd

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199691326
eISBN:
9780191731785
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199691326.001.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Theoretical Linguistics, Syntax and Morphology

This book adopts the strong Minimalist thesis that grammar contains no rules or principles specifically designed to account for anaphors and pronouns. Lexically, anaphors have unvalued φ-features, ... More


Innocent bystander: the loss of the indefinite pronoun man

Bettelou Los

in The Rise of the To-Infinitive

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199274765
eISBN:
9780191705885
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199274765.003.0010
Subject:
Linguistics, Historical Linguistics

This chapter presents an account of an unexpected victim of both the rise of the to-infinitive and the loss of verb-second: the ‘ultra-indefinite’ pronoun man. Two factors almost completely destroyed ... More


Articles and Pronouns

Ronald K. S. Macaulay

in Talk that Counts: Age, Gender, and Social Class Differences in Discourse

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195173819
eISBN:
9780199788361
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195173819.003.0011
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

There are no social class differences in the use of the definite and indefinite articles, but they are used significantly more frequently by males. The articles are used much less frequently by the ... More


Locating Causal Structure in Language

Steven Sloman

in Causal Models: How People Think about the World and Its Alternatives

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780195183115
eISBN:
9780199870950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183115.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter discusses how we use aspects of language. It shows that we use causal models to produce and understand speech even when we have no idea that we are doing so. Two aspects of language are ... More


Introduction

Johan Rooryck and Guido Vanden Wyngaerd

in Dissolving Binding Theory

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199691326
eISBN:
9780191731785
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199691326.003.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Theoretical Linguistics, Syntax and Morphology

This introductory chapter presents the main thesis adopted in this book: there are no grammatical rules that are specifically designed to account for the distribution of anaphors and pronouns in the ... More


Conclusion

Johan Rooryck and Guido Vanden Wyngaerd

in Dissolving Binding Theory

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199691326
eISBN:
9780191731785
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199691326.003.0008
Subject:
Linguistics, Theoretical Linguistics, Syntax and Morphology

This chapter wraps up the main results of the book. These are as follows. Absence of Principle B effects can be elegantly accounted for in terms of Distributed Morphology. Simplex reflexives are ... More


Reflexivity (1986) *

Nathan Salmon

in Content, Cognition, and Communication: Philosophical Papers II

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199284726
eISBN:
9780191713774
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199284726.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter investigates three related philosophical puzzles: (1) the Richard-Soames problem: If someone believes that Hesperus outweighs Phosphorus, why does he/she not infer that there is ... More


Reflections on Reflexivity (1992) *

Nathan Salmon

in Content, Cognition, and Communication: Philosophical Papers II

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199284726
eISBN:
9780191713774
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199284726.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

In this sequel to the previous chapter's essay, competing accounts of reflexive pronouns (e.g., ‘himself’) are considered and contrasted. The theory that reflexive-pronoun occurrences are typically ... More


Introduction

Ash Asudeh

in The Logic of Pronominal Resumption

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199206421
eISBN:
9780191738081
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199206421.003.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Semantics and Pragmatics, Syntax and Morphology

This chapter introduces the main theoretical hypothesis of the book, the Resource Sensitivity Hypothesis. With respect to semantics, the hypothesis is that the meaning of each part of a linguistic ... More


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