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Bayesian Statistical Inference

Željko Ivezi, Andrew J. Connolly, Jacob T. VanderPlas, Alexander Gray, Željko Ivezi, Andrew J. Connolly, Jacob T. VanderPlas, and Alexander Gray

in Statistics, Data Mining, and Machine Learning in Astronomy: A Practical Python Guide for the Analysis of Survey Data

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151687
eISBN:
9781400848911
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151687.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter introduces the most important aspects of Bayesian statistical inference and techniques for performing such calculations in practice. It first reviews the basic steps in Bayesian ... More


A Theory of Presentism

Craig Bourne

in A Future for Presentism

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199212804
eISBN:
9780191707094
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199212804.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

I begin by laying down three conditions which any theory of time should meet: it should accord with our view that certain statements about the past are true; that the truthmakers for those statements ... More


Bayesian Statistics 9

José M. Bernardo, M. J. Bayarri, James O. Berger, A. P. Dawid, David Heckerman, Adrian F. M. Smith, and Mike West (eds)

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199694587
eISBN:
9780191731921
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199694587.001.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

The Valencia International Meetings on Bayesian Statistics – established in 1979 and held every four years – have been the forum for a definitive overview of current concerns and activities in ... More


The Agrippan Argument and Two Forms of Skepticism

Michael Williams

in Pyrrhonian Skepticism

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780195169720
eISBN:
9780199786343
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195169727.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This essay argues that the Pyrrhonian regress argument presupposes a Prior Grounding conception of justification. This is contrasted with a Default and Challenge structure, which leads to a ... More


Conservatism in a Simple Probability Inference Task

Jie W Weiss and David J Weiss

in A Science of Decision Making: The Legacy of Ward Edwards

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195322989
eISBN:
9780199869206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322989.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter presents three experiments that explore several factors that affect conservatism. Experiment I examined the effects of prior probabilities, amount of data, and the diagnostic impact of ... More


Structural Properties

Alexander Bird

in Nature's Metaphysics: Laws and Properties

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199227013
eISBN:
9780191711121
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227013.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Geometrical and other properties that may be labelled ‘structural’ are held up as examples of properties that are not potencies, but are categorical properties. The debate between Mellor and Prior is ... More


The Economist’s Oath: On the Need for and Content of Professional Economic Ethics

George F. DeMartino

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199730568
eISBN:
9780199896776
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199730568.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

Economists alter the course of economic affairs and thereby affect the life chances of current and future generations. They do this through their scholarship and teaching, and through their ... More


 Keeping Up to Date

Ken Binmore

in Playing for Real: Game Theory

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780195300574
eISBN:
9780199783748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195300574.003.0013
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

This chapter is about Bayesian decision theory. It explains why game theorists model players' beliefs using subjective probability distributions, and how these beliefs are updated using Bayes' rule ... More


BEARING OF INTERPRETATIONS OF PROBABILITY ON STATISTICAL INDUCTION

Shoutir Kishore Chatterjee

in Statistical Thought: A Perspective and History

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198525318
eISBN:
9780191711657
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525318.003.0004
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

Objective statistical induction may be behavioural, instantial, or pro-subjective (Bayesian), depending on the form of judging inferential uncertainty. In the behavioral case, the unknown parameters ... More


BEGINNING OF THE PRO-SUBJECTIVE APPROACH

Shoutir Kishore Chatterjee

in Statistical Thought: A Perspective and History

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198525318
eISBN:
9780191711657
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525318.003.0007
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

Around the middle of the 18th century, Bayes conceived the idea of treating an unknown parameter as a subjective random variable distributed according to a prior, and inferring about it from its ... More


Bayesian Rationality and Social Epistemology

Herbert Gintis

in The Bounds of Reason: Game Theory and the Unification of the Behavioral Sciences

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691160849
eISBN:
9781400851348
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691160849.003.0008
Subject:
Sociology, Economic Sociology

This chapter uses epistemic game theory to expand on the notion of social norms as choreographer of a correlated equilibrium, and to elucidate the socio-psychological prerequisites for the notion ... More


Conclusion

Louis Kaplow

in Competition Policy and Price Fixing

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691158624
eISBN:
9781400846078
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691158624.003.0019
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter links three arguments offered in favor of the traditional view to the foregoing analysis. One argument asserts a difficulty in attacking purely interdependent behavior because such would ... More


Narrative and Intertextuality: Telling One's Own Story within a Textual Community

Charlotte Linde

in Working the Past: Narrative and Institutional Memory

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195140286
eISBN:
9780199871247
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195140286.003.0008
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter investigates the relation between institutional stories and the ways in which members tell their own stories within this field of prior texts. It examines the notions of intertextuality ... More


Can sensation be measured?

Donald Laming

in The Measurement of Sensation

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198523420
eISBN:
9780191712425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523420.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

There have long been psychologists who have asserted that sensation is not measurable. This second chapter looks at philosophical objections to the idea and empirical findings that bear on the issue. ... More


Facts and Propositions

Michael Dummett

in Thought and Reality

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199207275
eISBN:
9780191708749
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199207275.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter begins with an explanation of facts and propositions. It considers the alternative view of Frege, namely that facts, though genuine entities, inhabit a quite special sector of reality. ... More


Why Stevens' Law is a power law

Donald Laming

in The Measurement of Sensation

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198523420
eISBN:
9780191712425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523420.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter explains why Stevens' Power Law is a power law, rather than some other kind of relation. If the stimulus values are chosen in a geometric series and participants are induced to judge ... More


The stimulus range

Donald Laming

in The Measurement of Sensation

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198523420
eISBN:
9780191712425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523420.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Exponents estimated for different stimulus continua are approximately inversely related to the log stimulus range; but that ceases to be true when comparisons are made between different ranges on the ... More


Prior Densities for the Regression Model

Luc Bauwens, Michel Lubrano, and Jean-François Richard

in Bayesian Inference in Dynamic Econometric Models

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780198773122
eISBN:
9780191695315
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198773122.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter examines prior densities applicable for the regression model. It addresses the question of how to specify precisely the shape and the contents of the prior density in an empirical ... More


Priors and Learning in Cue Integration

Anna Seydell, David C. Knill, and Julia Trommershäuser

in Sensory Cue Integration

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195387247
eISBN:
9780199918379
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195387247.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter reviews the role of prior knowledge for the integration of sensory information and discusses how priors can be modified by experience. It shows that prior knowledge affects perception at ... More


Multisensory Perception: From Integration to Remapping

Marc O. Ernst and Massimiliano Di Luca

in Sensory Cue Integration

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195387247
eISBN:
9780199918379
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195387247.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

The brain receives information about the environment from all the sensory modalities, including vision, touch, and audition. To interact efficiently with the environment, this information must ... More


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