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Introduction

Erich Vranes

in Trade and the Environment: Fundamental Issues in International Law, WTO Law, and Legal Theory

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199562787
eISBN:
9780191705366
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562787.003.0001
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, EU Law

This introductory chapter provides an overview of the main questions examined in this book. It argues that there are three sets of questions which demarcate the so-called ‘trade and environment’ ... More


Bayesian Statistics 9

José M. Bernardo, M. J. Bayarri, James O. Berger, A. P. Dawid, David Heckerman, Adrian F. M. Smith, and Mike West (eds)

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199694587
eISBN:
9780191731921
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199694587.001.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

The Valencia International Meetings on Bayesian Statistics – established in 1979 and held every four years – have been the forum for a definitive overview of current concerns and activities in ... More


Solutions

N. Thompson Hobbs and Mevin B. Hooten

in Bayesian Models: A Statistical Primer for Ecologists

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691159287
eISBN:
9781400866557
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691159287.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter provides solutions to the problems presented in the preceding chapter. It presents the diagrams for each problem as well as some explanations on how the solutions are arrived at. As has ... More


 Keeping Up to Date

Ken Binmore

in Playing for Real: Game Theory

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780195300574
eISBN:
9780199783748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195300574.003.0013
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

This chapter is about Bayesian decision theory. It explains why game theorists model players' beliefs using subjective probability distributions, and how these beliefs are updated using Bayes' rule ... More


Hierarchical Bayesian Models

N. Thompson Hobbs and Mevin B. Hooten

in Bayesian Models: A Statistical Primer for Ecologists

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691159287
eISBN:
9781400866557
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691159287.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter seeks to explain hierarchical models and how they differ from simple Bayesian models and to illustrate building hierarchical models using mathematically correct expressions. It begins ... More


Markov Chain Monte Carlo

N. Thompson Hobbs and Mevin B. Hooten

in Bayesian Models: A Statistical Primer for Ecologists

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691159287
eISBN:
9781400866557
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691159287.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter explains how to implement Bayesian analyses using the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm, a set of methods for Bayesian analysis made popular by the seminal paper of Gelfand and ... More


Inference from a Single Model

N. Thompson Hobbs and Mevin B. Hooten

in Bayesian Models: A Statistical Primer for Ecologists

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691159287
eISBN:
9781400866557
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691159287.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter shows how to make inferences using MCMC samples. Here, the process of inference begins on the assumption that a single model is being analyzed. The objective is to estimate parameters, ... More


Inference from Multiple Models

N. Thompson Hobbs and Mevin B. Hooten

in Bayesian Models: A Statistical Primer for Ecologists

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691159287
eISBN:
9781400866557
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691159287.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter describes how to evaluate alternative models with data. There are two broad ways to formally use multiple models: model selection and model averaging. In model selection, models are ... More


Problems

N. Thompson Hobbs and Mevin B. Hooten

in Bayesian Models: A Statistical Primer for Ecologists

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691159287
eISBN:
9781400866557
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691159287.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter provides a set of structured problems to hone the reader's skills in model building. Each problem requires the reader to draw a Bayesian network and write the posterior and joint ... More


BEARING OF INTERPRETATIONS OF PROBABILITY ON STATISTICAL INDUCTION

Shoutir Kishore Chatterjee

in Statistical Thought: A Perspective and History

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198525318
eISBN:
9780191711657
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525318.003.0004
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

Objective statistical induction may be behavioural, instantial, or pro-subjective (Bayesian), depending on the form of judging inferential uncertainty. In the behavioral case, the unknown parameters ... More


BEGINNING OF THE PRO-SUBJECTIVE APPROACH

Shoutir Kishore Chatterjee

in Statistical Thought: A Perspective and History

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198525318
eISBN:
9780191711657
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525318.003.0007
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

Around the middle of the 18th century, Bayes conceived the idea of treating an unknown parameter as a subjective random variable distributed according to a prior, and inferring about it from its ... More


Bodily Feelings Emerge in the Insular Cortex: Interoceptive Integration Generates the Feeling of Being Alive

A. D. (Bud) Craig

in How Do You Feel?: An Interoceptive Moment with Your Neurobiological Self

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691156767
eISBN:
9781400852727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691156767.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Neurobiology

This chapter presents evidence that supports the idea that activity in the interoceptive cortex in the posterior insula is re-represented, integrated, and transformed in the middle and anterior ... More


Sacral Nerves

Jay A. Liveson and Dong M. Ma

in Laboratory Reference for Clinical Neurophysiology

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195129243
eISBN:
9780199847792
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195129243.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

The posterior femoral cutaneous nerve is also referred to as the lesser sciatic nerve. It originates from the S1 to S3 roots. It exits from the pelvis by passing anterior to the piriformis muscle and ... More


Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetics

Pablo A. Goloboff and Diego Pol

in Parsimony, Phylogeny, and Genomics

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199297306
eISBN:
9780191713729
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199297306.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The intent of a statistically-based phylogenetic method is to estimate tree topologies and values of possibly relevant parameters, as well as the uncertainty inherent in those estimations. A method ... More


Cortical systems in speaking

Doreen Kimura

in Neuromotor Mechanisms in Human Communication

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195054927
eISBN:
9780199872268
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195054927.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Neuropsychology

This chapter examines aphasic patients who have experienced damage to either the anterior or posterior speech zones. The results of various speech comprehension and perception tasks undertaken by ... More


Oral movement control and speech

Doreen Kimura

in Neuromotor Mechanisms in Human Communication

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195054927
eISBN:
9780199872268
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195054927.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Neuropsychology

This chapter examines the co-occurrence of speech and nonspeech oral-movement defects, and the relation between oral-movement control and manual-movement control. The repetition of single syllables ... More


Information Percolation in OTC Markets

Darrell Duffie

in Dark Markets: Asset Pricing and Information Transmission in Over-the-Counter Markets

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691138961
eISBN:
9781400840519
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691138961.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

This chapter describes a simple model of the “percolation” of information of common interest through an over-the-counter market with many agents. It also includes an explicit solution for the ... More


Internal Capsule

Jeremy D. Schmahmann and Deepak N. Pandya

in Fiber Pathways of the Brain

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195104233
eISBN:
9780199864294
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195104233.003.0024
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter begins with a historical account of the study of the internal capsule. It then discusses the results of the investigation of the internal capsule of rhesus monkey brains. Topics covered ... More


Trends and Breaking Points of the Bayesian Econometric Literature

Luc Bauwens and Michel Lubrano

in Economics Beyond the Millennium

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198292111
eISBN:
9780191596537
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198292112.003.0016
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics, Microeconomics

The authors recall the basic differences of view between classical and Bayesian analysis and note that the dispute among statisticians has not been exactly reflected in econometrics. Starting with a ... More


Executive processes

William Hirstein

in Mindmelding: Consciousness, Neuroscience, and the Mind's Privacy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199231904
eISBN:
9780191738319
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231904.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter presents what is known about the anatomy and function of the executive processes to provide a better understanding of them. The discussion covers the sensory and mnemonic representations ... More


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