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Political Violence in the Twentieth Century

Charles K. Bellinger

in The Genealogy of Violence: Reflections on Creation, Freedom, and Evil

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195134988
eISBN:
9780199833986
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195134982.003.0009
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion

Adolf Hitler and Naziism are interpreted as an extreme example of Kierkegaard's aesthetic sphere of existence. Stalin and Russian Communism are interpreted as an extreme example of Kierkegaard's ... More


The Moses of Italian Unity: Mazzini and Nationalism as Political Religion

Simon Levis Sullam

in Giuseppe Mazzini and the Globalization of Democratic Nationalism, 1830-1920

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197264317
eISBN:
9780191734472
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264317.003.0007
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter examines the nature of Mazzini's nationalism by analysing it as a ‘political religion’: a system of myths, symbols, and rituals the subordinates the collectivity to the supreme entity of ... More


Lincoln's Political Religion and Religious Politics

John Y. Simon, Harold Holzer, and Dawn Vogel

in Lincoln Revisited: New Insights from the Lincoln Forum

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780823227365
eISBN:
9780823240869
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823227365.003.0002
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century

Abraham Lincoln's understanding of the requirements of republican government led him to direct religious sentiment toward responsible democracy or self-government. As a successful republic requires a ... More


Political religion: secularity and the study of religion in global civil society

John D'Arcy May

in Religion, spirituality and the social sciences: Challenging marginalisation

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781847420411
eISBN:
9781447303190
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781847420411.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Sociology of Religion

The place of religion within the civil society has always been a contested issue. Some contend that religion should be separated from the mechanisms of the society while some argue that religion is ... More


Religion and Politics

Jason C. Bivins

in The Columbia Guide to Religion in American History

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231140201
eISBN:
9780231530781
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231140201.003.0007
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

This chapter examines the relationship between religion and politics in America. Historically, both “religion” and “politics” have been intertwined in American public life. Indeed, American religions ... More


Totalitarianism and Political Religion: An Intellectual History

A. James Gregor

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804781305
eISBN:
9780804783682
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804781305.001.0001
Subject:
History, Cultural History

The totalitarian systems that arose in the twentieth century presented themselves as secular. Yet, as the author of this book argues, they themselves functioned as religions. The author presents an ... More


The Protestant ethic revisited: conservative Christianity and the quality of American democracy

John Anderson

in Christianity and Democratisation: From Pious Subjects to Critical Participants

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
July 2012
ISBN:
9780719077388
eISBN:
9781781702000
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719077388.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

This chapter examines the developments in Anglo-Protestant culture, with particular reference to its likely consequences for the evolution of American democracy. The factors contributing to the ... More


Introduction

in Totalitarianism and Political Religion: An Intellectual History

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804781305
eISBN:
9780804783682
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804781305.003.0001
Subject:
History, Cultural History

Georg Friedrich Wilhelm Hegel was an advocate of political “sacralization” and totalitarian political thought who produced a system of reflections that were to shape the political and religious ... More


Beyond Sacred and Secular: Politics of Religion in Israel and Turkey

Sultan Tepe

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804758642
eISBN:
9780804763158
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804758642.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The global rise of political religion is one of the defining and most puzzling characteristics of current world politics. Since the early 1990s, religious parties have achieved stunning electoral ... More


Conclusions and Speculations

in Totalitarianism and Political Religion: An Intellectual History

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804781305
eISBN:
9780804783682
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804781305.003.0010
Subject:
History, Cultural History

This concluding chapter discusses developmental systems, reactive nationalism, totalitarianism, and the forms of political religion that accompanied it. At the turn of the twentieth century, ... More


“Jewish World Conspiracy” and the Question of Secular Religions: An Interpretative Perspective

Paul Zawadzki

in The Paranoid Apocalypse: A Hundred-Year Retrospective on The Protocols of the Elders of Zion

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814748923
eISBN:
9780814748930
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814748923.003.0008
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

This chapter examines the role of the Protocols as part of an ominous new phenomenon: secular “political religions.” The Protocols is a remarkable case study in the way that, under the secular ... More


Totalitarianism from Hitler to Pol Pot

Gregory Claeys

in Dystopia: A Natural History

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780198785682
eISBN:
9780191827471
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198785682.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, World Modern History

This chapter focuses on the Hitler and the Nazi death camp at Auschwitz, Stalin’s Bolshevik regime and the Gulag camps, and Pol Pot’s rule in Cambodia between 1975 and 1979. It also includes ... More


Nazism—A Political Religion? Rethinking the Voluntarist Turn

Neil Gregor

in Nazism, War and Genocide: New Perspectives on the History of the Third Reich

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780859897457
eISBN:
9781781387238
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/liverpool/9780859897457.003.0001
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter offers a critique of Michael Burleigh's description of National Socialism during the Third Reich as a ‘political religion’. It examines many of Burleigh's arguments, such as his claim ... More


Catholic Fascist Ideology in Argentina

Federico Finchelstein

in The Ideological Origins of the Dirty War: Fascism, Populism, and Dictatorship in Twentieth Century Argentina

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199930241
eISBN:
9780199372256
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199930241.003.0002
Subject:
History, Latin American History

The fascists of Argentina believed fascism had to be rooted in Catholicism.This Argentine emphasis on the Catholic nature of their fascism did not affect the dissemination of an international ... More


The Beerhall Putsch and the Transformation of the Nazi Movement after 1923

Derek Hastings

in Catholicism and the Roots of Nazism: Religious Identity and National Socialism

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199843459
eISBN:
9780190254513
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199843459.003.0006
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter focuses on developments that ultimately set Nazism on a markedly different trajectory and led to the demise of its relationship with Catholicism. It first considers Adolf Hitler's ... More


The Turning Point: The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and the Eschatological War between Aryans and Jews

David Redles

in The Paranoid Apocalypse: A Hundred-Year Retrospective on The Protocols of the Elders of Zion

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814748923
eISBN:
9780814748930
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814748923.003.0009
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

This chapter examines perhaps the most famous case of a “political” or “secular religion”—Nazism. The apocalyptic urgency and the absolute stakes of the Protocols appealed to precisely those Germans ... More


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