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From Plunder to Preservation: Britain and the Heritage of Empire, c.1800–1940

Astrid Swenson and Peter Mandler (eds)

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780197265413
eISBN:
9780191760464
Item type:
book
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197265413.001.0001
Subject:
History, World Modern History

What was the effect of the British empire on the cultures and civilizations of the peoples over whom it ruled? This book takes a novel approach to this important and controversial subject by ... More


The Heritage of Empire*

Astrid Swenson

in From Plunder to Preservation: Britain and the Heritage of Empire, c.1800–1940

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780197265413
eISBN:
9780191760464
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197265413.003.0001
Subject:
History, World Modern History

This chapter maps the relationships between heritage and empire in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and their impact on notions of world heritage. It connects the history of heritage in ... More


Nutrient cycling as an emergent property

David M. Wilkinson

in Fundamental Processes in Ecology: An earth systems approach

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198568469
eISBN:
9780191717611
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568469.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Arguments based on both in vitro and in silico models suggest that biogeochemical cycles will readily evolve on planets with life, along with many of the putative fundamental processes described in ... More


Prohibiting Plunder: How Norms Change

Wayne Sandholtz

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195337235
eISBN:
9780199868391
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195337235.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

For much of history, the rules of war decreed that “to the victor go the spoils”. The winners in warfare routinely seized for themselves the artistic and cultural treasures of the defeated; plunder ... More


Protecting Cultural Treasures in Wartime

Wayne Sandholtz

in International Norms and Cycles of Change

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195380088
eISBN:
9780199855377
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195380088.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter assesses the evolution of international norms against cultural plundering, focusing on two crucial turns through the cycle of normative change: the Napoleonic Wars and World War II. The ... More


Nazi Plunder: Strengthening the Rules

Wayne Sandholtz

in Prohibiting Plunder: How Norms Change

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195337235
eISBN:
9780199868391
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195337235.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter begins with a brief overview of the organization and extent of Nazi plundering during World War II. It then moves to an account of how the Allies perceived and applied anti-plundering ... More


Preventing Plunder: International Cooperation against the Illicit Trade in Antiquities

Asif Efrat

in Governing Guns, Preventing Plunder: International Cooperation against Illicit Trade

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199760305
eISBN:
9780199950010
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199760305.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter examines the domestic and international political conflicts underlying the cooperative efforts against the plunder of antiquities. The first section introduces illicit trade in ... More


Baghdad and Beyond

Wayne Sandholtz

in Prohibiting Plunder: How Norms Change

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195337235
eISBN:
9780199868391
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195337235.003.0010
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter focuses on how the looting of the Iraqi National Museum, following the arrival of US troops in Baghdad in 2003, triggered another cycle of norm development. The almost universal ... More


Dynamics of International Norm Change

Wayne Sandholtz

in Prohibiting Plunder: How Norms Change

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195337235
eISBN:
9780199868391
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195337235.003.0011
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter discusses the dynamics of international norm change. It argues that a single great power cannot dictate norms, but agreement among the major states is usually a prerequisite for norm ... More


International Norm Change

Wayne Sandholtz

in Prohibiting Plunder: How Norms Change

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195337235
eISBN:
9780199868391
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195337235.003.0001
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter begins with a brief description of the primary goal of the book, which is to provide a general model of international norm change and probe its usefulness by explaining the development ... More


Plunder and the Spoils of Victory

Wayne Sandholtz

in Prohibiting Plunder: How Norms Change

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195337235
eISBN:
9780199868391
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195337235.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter identifies two sets of changes in the 18th century that seemed to be weakening the foundations of what had long been the practice, and acknowledged right, of plunder. First, the ... More


Napoleonic Plunder and the Emergence of Norms

Wayne Sandholtz

in Prohibiting Plunder: How Norms Change

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195337235
eISBN:
9780199868391
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195337235.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter shows how French plundering triggered intense debates, which in turn led to new, emergent norms against the seizure of art treasures as trophies of war. It provides examples of the major ... More


The International Law Activists: Elaborating Norms in the Nineteenth Century

Wayne Sandholtz

in Prohibiting Plunder: How Norms Change

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195337235
eISBN:
9780199868391
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195337235.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

Voracious French art plundering in the wars of 1793-1815 shocked Europe and provided the foundation for an international norm against it. The effort to establish laws of war was the project of ... More


The Great War and the Protection of Art

Wayne Sandholtz

in Prohibiting Plunder: How Norms Change

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195337235
eISBN:
9780199868391
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195337235.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter discusses destruction of cultural property during World War I, and the subsequent restitution debates and settlements. World War I triggered another important turn through the cycle of ... More


Codifying Norms: Nuremberg and the Hague

Wayne Sandholtz

in Prohibiting Plunder: How Norms Change

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195337235
eISBN:
9780199868391
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195337235.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter is a continuation of the cycle of norm change that began with Nazi looting during World War II. In response to the shocking intensity of German art looting during World War II, the ... More


War in the 1990s: Crimes against Cultural Heritage

Wayne Sandholtz

in Prohibiting Plunder: How Norms Change

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195337235
eISBN:
9780199868391
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195337235.003.0008
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter examines recent developments that have contributed to the ongoing cycle of normative evolution. It focuses on two wars in the 1990s that propelled the protection of cultural treasures ... More


Repercussions of Nazi Plunder: Internalizing International Norms

Wayne Sandholtz

in Prohibiting Plunder: How Norms Change

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195337235
eISBN:
9780199868391
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195337235.003.0009
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

Disputes over works of art and other cultural properties plundered during World War II are driving the elaboration of rules in national arenas and in the private sphere. This chapter examines various ... More


Keeping the peace

Stilt Talar

in Islamic Law in Action: Authority, Discretion, and Everyday Experiences in Mamluk Egypt

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199602438
eISBN:
9780191729348
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199602438.003.0010
Subject:
Law, Legal History

This chapter addresses the muhtasib’s actions in the area of general public order. In the first case, the muhtasib investigated a mysterious talking wall and identified the perpetrators of the hoax ... More


The Colosseum

David Karmon

in The Ruin of the Eternal City: Antiquity and Preservation in Renaissance Rome

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199766895
eISBN:
9780199896745
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199766895.003.0004
Subject:
Classical Studies, History of Art: pre-history, BCE to 500CE, ancient and classical, Byzantine, World History: BCE to 500CE

The half-ruined Colosseum is the most infamous symbol of the Renaissance plundering of antiquity. This chapter challenges this received truth by investigating how Renaissance excavations conformed to ... More


War Crimes

Kevin Jon Heller

in The Nuremberg Military Tribunals and the Origins of International Criminal Law

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199554317
eISBN:
9780191728624
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199554317.003.0010
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This chapter examines the tribunals' war-crimes jurisprudence. Section 1 explores when the Hague and Geneva Conventions applied, how the tribunals defined ‘occupation’, and whether the applicability ... More


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