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Placebo Effects: Understanding the mechanisms in health and disease

Fabrizio Benedetti

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199559121
eISBN:
9780191724022
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559121.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

One of the most widespread words in medicine is the placebo and placebo effect, although it is not always clear what it means exactly. Recent progress in biomedical research has allowed a better ... More


Clinical Asthma Trials

Lainie Friedman Ross

in Children in Medical Research: Access versus Protection

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199273287
eISBN:
9780191603655
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199273286.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter examines four ethical issues raised by clinical asthma research involving children subjects: (1) to what extent are clinical asthma trials designed as placebo-controlled trials as ... More


 Pharmacological and Psychological Interventions

Walter Glannon

in Bioethics and the Brain

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780195307788
eISBN:
9780199867431
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195307788.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter assesses the potential benefits and harms of actual and possible uses of psychopharmacological agents for prevention, therapy, and enhancement. These include using drugs to prevent or ... More


Therapeutic mystique

William A. Silverman

in Where's the Evidence?: Debates in Modern Medicine

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192630889
eISBN:
9780191723568
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192630889.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents a 1988 commentary on the role of the placebo effect in treatments. Patients appear to respond best when they ‘have faith’ in their doctors. Doctors also seem more effective when ... More


Brain Enhancement and Other Magical Beliefs

Gary L. Wenk

in Your Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195388541
eISBN:
9780199863587
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388541.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic

No drugs or nutrients are currently available that can reverse the primary cause of cognitive decline: normal aging. Also, it is currently impossible to enhance the function of a normal brain. These ... More


The Biology of Positive Emotions and Health

Andrea H. Marques and Esther M. Sternberg

in Altruism and Health: Perspectives from Empirical Research

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195182910
eISBN:
9780199786794
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195182910.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology

This chapter reviews existing literature on the biological pathways and mechanisms involved in social interactions and positive emotions and their potential relationship to enhanced health. The first ... More


Religion Is (or Was) an Adaptation

Matt J. Rossano

in Supernatural Selection: How Religion Evolved

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195385816
eISBN:
9780199870080
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385816.003.0007
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

Chapter 7 argues that religion was a cultural adaptation. In its earliest form, religion was shamanism. A primary focus of shamanistic rituals was to bring about community and individual healing. ... More


Demand Characteristics and the Concept of Quasi-Controls 1

Martin T. Orne

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Here, the assumption is that many subjects who volunteer for research participation have a tendency to play the role of the “good subject” (an ironic term) who is both highly sensitive and responsive ... More


Psychopharmacology of Human Aggression: Laboratory and Clinical Studies

Don R. Cherek, Oleg V. Tcheremissine, and Scott D. Lane

in Biology of Aggression

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195168761
eISBN:
9780199865444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195168761.003.0017
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic

This chapter discusses the association between drugs and human aggression, laboratory studies of human aggression, and effects of drugs on human aggression under laboratory conditions. It argues that ... More


Protecting human subjects in brain research: a pragmatic perspective

Franklin G. Miller and Joseph J. Fins

in Neuroethics: Defining the issues in theory, practice, and policy

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198567219
eISBN:
9780191724084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567219.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter elucidates ethical considerations in designing and carrying out clinical research on people with brain disorders based on an approach to research ethics derived from American ... More


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