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Visual Ecology

Thomas W. Cronin, Sönke Johnsen, N. Justin Marshall, and Eric J. Warrant

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151847
eISBN:
9781400853021
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151847.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Visual ecology is the study of how animals use visual systems to meet their ecological needs, how these systems have evolved, and how they are specialized for particular visual tasks. This book ... More


Visual Pigments and Photoreceptors

Thomas W. Cronin, Sönke Johnsen, N. Justin Marshall, and Eric J. Warrant

in Visual Ecology

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151847
eISBN:
9781400853021
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151847.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter focuses on visual pigments and photoreceptors. In living things, photoreception inevitably begins with a photochemical event—a molecule intercepts a photon of light and is somehow ... More


The Eye Designs of the Animal Kingdom

Thomas W. Cronin, Sönke Johnsen, N. Justin Marshall, and Eric J. Warrant

in Visual Ecology

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151847
eISBN:
9781400853021
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151847.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter studies the eye designs of the animal kingdom. Today, there are ten generally recognized optical eye types that have evolved in various branches of the animal kingdom. Whereas ... More


Photoperiodism in Mollusks

Hideharu Numata and Hiroko Udaka

in Photoperiodism: The Biological Calendar

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195335903
eISBN:
9780199775446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335903.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter focuses on photoperiodism in gastropods, particularly terrestrial and freshwater species in the order Pulmonata, in which photoperiodism has been intensively examined. It also suggests ... More


Seeing Black and White

Alan Gilchrist

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

How the human visual system determines the lightness of a surface, that is, its whiteness, blackness, or grayness, remains, like vision in general, a mystery. In fact, we have not been able to create ... More


Photoperiodism in Insects: Aphid Polyphenism

Jim Hardie

in Photoperiodism: The Biological Calendar

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195335903
eISBN:
9780199775446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335903.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter discusses the complicated role of photoperiod in regulating life history traits in aphids. As for all organisms responding to day length, aphids require a photoreceptor system that can ... More


Sensory organs

A. Schmidt-Rhaesa

in The Evolution of Organ Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198566687
eISBN:
9780191718007
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566687.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

There is a wide variety of different sensory organs, but the basic principles of their function are similar. This chapter summarizes the known sensory structures, and ciliary receptors are briefly ... More


Filling-In: From Perceptual Completion to Cortical Reorganization

Luiz Pessoa and Peter De Weerd (eds)

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195140132
eISBN:
9780199865307
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195140132.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Behavioral Neuroscience

A well-known example of filling-in involves the blind spot, a region in the back of the eye that is devoid of photoreceptors. The term blind spot is somewhat of a misnomer, because the corresponding ... More


Vision: How It Works and What Can Go Wrong

John E. Dowling and Jr. Joseph L. Dowling

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262034616
eISBN:
9780262333566
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262034616.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

The visual system is our best understood sensory system, and for humans vision is paramount. Surveys indicate people fear blindness more than any other sensory disability. Most visual problems ... More


Lack Of S-Opsin Expression in the Brush-Tailed Porcupine (Atherurus Africanus) and Other Mammals. Is the Evolutionary Persistence of S-Cones a Paradox?

P. Ahnelt, K. Moutairou, M. Glösmann, and A. Kübber-Heiss

in Normal and Defective Colour Vision

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198525301
eISBN:
9780191584947
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525301.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter describes the photoreceptor layer of the African brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus) and surveys the occurrence of secondary short wavelength cone (pigment) sensitivity loss. ... More


Structure and Function of the Retina in Aquatic Tetrapods

Tom Reuter and Leo Peichl

in Sensory Evolution on the Threshold: Adaptations in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520252783
eISBN:
9780520934122
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520252783.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter discusses the anatomy and physiology of the retina in aquatic tetrapods. It focuses on the input and output stages of retinal processing: the photoreceptors and the ganglion cells. It ... More


The firefly squid, Watasenia scintillans, has three visual pigments

Masatsugu Seidou, Kinya Narita, Masanao Michinomae, and Yuji Kito

in Cephalopod Neurobiology: Neuroscience Studies in Squid, Octopus and Cuttlefish

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198547907
eISBN:
9780191724299
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198547907.003.0336
Subject:
Neuroscience, Invertebrate Neurobiology

This chapter describes the three visual pigments and their distribution in the retina of Watasenia scintillans. These have absorbance maxima at 471 nm, 484 nm, and 501 nm. The 484 nm pigment is based ... More


Electroretinography

Scott E. Brodie and Jay A. Liveson

in Laboratory Reference for Clinical Neurophysiology

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195129243
eISBN:
9780199847792
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195129243.003.0015
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

Anatomically, the retina consists of primary photoreceptors occupying the outer layers, which relay visual information to second-order neurons (bipolar neurons) in the middle retinal layers. These ... More


Assessing dimensionality in infant colour vision

Kenneth Knoblauch, Michelle Bieber, and John S. Werner

in Infant Vision

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523161
eISBN:
9780191724558
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523161.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Since the human visual system continues to mature and to be influenced by the visual environment over at least the first two years of life, the practical benefit of studies of infant vision will be ... More


Spatial and temporal properties of infant colour vision

David C. Burr, M. Concetta Morrone, and Adriana Fiorentini

in Infant Vision

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523161
eISBN:
9780191724558
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523161.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Information processing for colour vision starts in the retinal photoreceptors and proceeds through the inner retina, the lateral geniculate nucleus, and visual cortex. At the photoreceptor level, the ... More


Physiological Mechanisms of Adaptation in the Visual System

Michael R. Ibbotson

in Fitting the Mind to the World: Adaptation and After-Effects in High-Level Vision

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198529699
eISBN:
9780191689697
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529699.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter considers the physiological mechanisms that drive adaptation at higher processing levels in the nervous system. It discusses the mechanisms that generate beneficial alterations in the ... More


Sight: Creating the Color of Wine

Gordon M. Shepherd

in Neuroenology: How the Brain Creates the Taste of Wine

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780231177009
eISBN:
9780231542876
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231177009.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

We explain how light stimuli are transformed into responses of blue, green and red receptors in the retina, then how the visual pathway contains circuits that enhance contrast between different ... More


The origin of vision

Michael F. Land and Dan-Eric Nilsson

in Animal Eyes

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199581139
eISBN:
9780191774652
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199581139.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Most of the types of eye that we recognize today arose in a brief period during the Cambrian, about 530 million years ago. The development of better eyes coincided with increases in size, speed, and ... More


How Photoreceptors Optimize the Capture of Visual Information

Peter Sterling

in Principles of Neural Design

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262028707
eISBN:
9780262327312
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028707.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

Photoreceptors use protein circuits to code efficiently. As light level changes, the circuits dynamically adapt gain and response speed to optimize coding. Mammalian rods specialize to code the ... More


Turning on a Butterfly

Pete A. Ensminger

in Life Under the Sun

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300088045
eISBN:
9780300133523
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300088045.003.0013
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter focuses on animal genitalia, their function, and the evolutionary significance of sexual selection. The good gene mechanisms of evolution by sexual dimorphism and the runaway sexual ... More


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