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The X‐ray laser and the single molecule — no crystal needed?

Naomi E. Chayen, John R. Helliwell, and Edward H. Snell

in Macromolecular Crystallization and Crystal Perfection

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199213252
eISBN:
9780191707575
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213252.003.0019
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

Major increases in brightness are anticipated with the upcoming coherent X‐ray lasers. Extrapolation suggests that a single macromolecule ‘sample’ may be sufficient to generate a measurable X‐ray ... More


Fundamentals of Beam Physics

J. B. Rosenzweig

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198525547
eISBN:
9780191711725
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525547.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This book presents beam physics using a unified approach, emphasizing basic concepts and analysis methods. While many existing resources in beams and accelerators are specialized to aid the ... More


Introduction

Sönke Johnsen

in The Optics of Life: A Biologist's Guide to Light in Nature

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691139906
eISBN:
9781400840663
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691139906.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This introductory chapter provides an overview of light. In particle language, a beam of light is a stream of photons—small massless particles with energy and momentum that travel at high speeds. In ... More


Scattering

Sönke Johnsen

in The Optics of Life: A Biologist's Guide to Light in Nature

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691139906
eISBN:
9781400840663
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691139906.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses scattering. As mentioned already, optics is primarily photons interacting with electrons, atoms, and molecules. If the energy of the photon matches the difference in energy ... More


What Is Light, Really?

Sönke Johnsen

in The Optics of Life: A Biologist's Guide to Light in Nature

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691139906
eISBN:
9781400840663
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691139906.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This concluding chapter explains that the modern theory of light falls within the field of quantum mechanics. At first glance, quantum mechanics does not seem that strange—its name is based on the ... More


Field quantization

J. C. Garrison and R. Y. Chiao

in Quantum Optics

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780198508861
eISBN:
9780191708640
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508861.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

The cavity-mode quantization conjecture of Chapter 2 is replaced by local commutation relations — which are independent of the size and shape of the cavity — between field-operator components. This ... More


Visual Pigments and Photoreceptors

Thomas W. Cronin, Sönke Johnsen, N. Justin Marshall, and Eric J. Warrant

in Visual Ecology

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151847
eISBN:
9781400853021
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151847.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter focuses on visual pigments and photoreceptors. In living things, photoreception inevitably begins with a photochemical event—a molecule intercepts a photon of light and is somehow ... More


Experiments in linear optics

J. C. Garrison and R. Y. Chiao

in Quantum Optics

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780198508861
eISBN:
9780191708640
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508861.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter presents experiments employing the optical devices described in Chapter 8 and the detection schemes discussed in Chapter 9. Single-photon interference — described by a first-order ... More


Nonlinear quantum optics

J. C. Garrison and R. Y. Chiao

in Quantum Optics

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780198508861
eISBN:
9780191708640
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508861.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter begins by reviewing the semi-classical theory of weakly nonlinear optics, in which the atomic polarization is a power series in the field amplitude. After replacing the classical ... More


RADIATION-TRANSFER THEORY

I. M. Vardavas and F. W. Taylor

in Radiation and Climate

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199227471
eISBN:
9780191711138
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227471.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

This chapter develops the mathematical formulation of the physics of radiation transfer within atmospheres, applicable to both planetary and stellar atmospheres. Definitions are given of the basic ... More


Experimental techniques of luminescence spectroscopy

Ivan Pelant and Jan Valenta

in Luminescence Spectroscopy of Semiconductors

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199588336
eISBN:
9780191738548
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199588336.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

Experimental techniques of luminescence spectroscopy take into consideration specific features of the field: very low level of the detected light and requirement of not-extremely high spectral ... More


Units and Geometry

Sönke Johnsen

in The Optics of Life: A Biologist's Guide to Light in Nature

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691139906
eISBN:
9781400840663
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691139906.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter explores units and geometry in light measurement. For biologists not working on humans, it comes down to a few simple rules: use photons not watts; use wavelength not frequency, but be ... More


Absorption

Sönke Johnsen

in The Optics of Life: A Biologist's Guide to Light in Nature

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691139906
eISBN:
9781400840663
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691139906.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter focuses on absorption. Absorption has been called the “death of photons.” While the energy of a photon is never truly lost, most people find the conversion of photons into heat and ... More


Scattering with Interference

Sönke Johnsen

in The Optics of Life: A Biologist's Guide to Light in Nature

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691139906
eISBN:
9781400840663
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691139906.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter studies wave interference. Light does not bend in a lens, it does not bounce off the surface of glass, and it does not spread out after passing through a small hole. All of these are ... More


Quantization of the free electromagnetic field

Efstratios Manousakis

in Practical Quantum Mechanics: Modern Tools and Applications

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
December 2015
ISBN:
9780198749349
eISBN:
9780191813474
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198749349.003.0029
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter, in a manner analogous to that used to quantize the one-dimensional chain of atoms coupled via spring-like constants to its neighboring atoms (see Chapter 28), it will quantize the ... More


Quantum information processing and quantum optics devices

Christian Kurtsiefer and Antía Lamas Linares

in Ultracold Gases and Quantum Information: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School in Singapore: Volume 91, July 2009

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199603657
eISBN:
9780191729515
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199603657.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter presents the basic concepts necessary to use photons as physical implementations of qubits. It starts with a traditional field quantization approach in the optical domain, where it puts ... More


QUANTUM DESCRIPTION OF LIGHT

Alexey V. Kavokin and Jeremy J. Baumberg

in Microcavities

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199228942
eISBN:
9780191711190
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228942.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter presents the basic principles of quantum optics. It starts from recalling the main elements of quantum mechanics in Heisenberg and Schroedinger interpretations, then the creation and ... More


Photon beams

J. B. Rosenzweig

in Fundamentals of Beam Physics

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198525547
eISBN:
9780191711725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525547.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter explores the physics of photons, both as beams in their own right, and as the phenomena of photon emission and absorption affect charged particle beams. It begins by introducing the ... More


Polaritons: Excitonic States Taking Account of Retardation

Vladimir M. Agranovich

in Excitations in Organic Solids

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199234417
eISBN:
9780191715426
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199234417.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter presents the microscopical theory of polaritons, being coherent superposition of one exciton and one transverse photon state. The dispersion of polaritons including the effect of spatial ... More


The theory of Compton scattering

W. Schülke

in X-Ray Compton Scattering

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198501688
eISBN:
9780191718045
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198501688.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter deals with the theory of the double differential photon scattering cross-section in both non-relativistic and relativistic treatments. It shows how the Impulse Approximation leads to a ... More


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