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The Computer Industry

Vernon W. Ruttan

in Is War Necessary for Economic Growth?: Military Procurement and Technology Development

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195188042
eISBN:
9780199783410
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195188047.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The first all-purpose digital computer, completed in 1946, was developed by John W. Mauchly and J. Prosper Eckert, and associates at the University of Pennsylvania’s Moore School of Electrical ... More


Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to build the Modern Computer

B. Jack Copeland (ed.)

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565932
eISBN:
9780191714016
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565932.001.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

The mathematical genius Alan Turing (1912-1954) was one of the greatest scientists and thinkers of the 20th century. Now well known for his crucial wartime role in breaking the ENIGMA code, he was ... More


Personal Computers: The Power of Open Standards

Peter Grindley

in Standards, Strategy, and Policy: Cases and Stories

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198288077
eISBN:
9780191684562
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198288077.003.0006
Subject:
Business and Management, Innovation, Strategy

This chapter discusses the introduction of the personal computer (PC) and how it became a principal example of the ability of open standards to focus on a new technology and create a new industry. ... More


Standards, Strategy, and Policy: Cases and Stories

Peter Grindley

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198288077
eISBN:
9780191684562
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198288077.001.0001
Subject:
Business and Management, Innovation, Strategy

This book discusses how compatibility standards may be used to ensure business success. It provides a framework for standards strategy and policy, together with a series of case-studies which ... More


An Introduction to Strategy and Policy: Winning with Standards

Peter Grindley

in Standards, Strategy, and Policy: Cases and Stories

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198288077
eISBN:
9780191684562
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198288077.003.0001
Subject:
Business and Management, Innovation, Strategy

This chapter introduces the framework for the status of a unique economics of standards including strategy and policy issues. Compatibility standard has been the key success, and the most significant ... More


Market Making in the Personal Computer Industry

Jason Dedrick and Kenneth L. Kraemer

in The Market Makers: How Retailers are Reshaping the Global Economy

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199590179
eISBN:
9780191724893
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590179.003.0012
Subject:
Business and Management, International Business

In this chapter, Jason Dedrick and Kenneth L. Kraemer analyze a transformation in the personal computer (PC) industry. In the traditional structure of the PC industry, PCs were marketed through a ... More


From Microcomputer to Music Computer: The MIDI Perspective

Peter Manning

in Electronic and Computer Music

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199746392
eISBN:
9780199332496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199746392.003.0016
Subject:
Music, Theory, Analysis, Composition, Popular

The early years of the microcomputer were characterized by a proliferation of machine architectures, each associated with a unique set of operating characteristics. As a result, many models enjoyed a ... More


Mobilizing the Information Society

Robin Mansell

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198295570
eISBN:
9780191685149
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198295570.001.0001
Subject:
Business and Management, Information Technology, Innovation

This book examines the interaction between social, regulatory, and market developments underlying the growing use of new technologies such as the personal computer and the Internet. Based upon ... More


The Personal Computer and Social Media

Paul E. Ceruzzi

in Social Media Archeology and Poetics

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780262034654
eISBN:
9780262336871
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262034654.003.0002
Subject:
Society and Culture, Technology and Society

The use of digital computers to facilitate social interaction has not eclipsed the uses for which they were invented, but it often seems that way. That use requires an ability to network computers to ... More


Personal Computers and Sound Processing

Peter Manning

in Electronic and Computer Music

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195144840
eISBN:
9780199849802
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195144840.003.0018
Subject:
Music, Theory, Analysis, Composition

In considering the development of the personal computer as a musical tool, attention has so far focused primarily on applications that make relatively modest demands on the underlying technology, for ... More


The Personal Computer

Peter Manning

in Electronic and Computer Music

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199746392
eISBN:
9780199332496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199746392.003.0020
Subject:
Music, Theory, Analysis, Composition, Popular

In considering the development of the personal computer as a musical tool, attention has so far focused primarily on applications that make relatively modest demands on the underlying technology, for ... More


Monetary Economic Myth and Econometric Reality

David F. Hendry

in Econometrics: Alchemy or Science?: Essays in Econometric Methodology

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198293545
eISBN:
9780191596391
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198293542.003.0013
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

Evaluates and replicates an improved specification of the transactions’ demand for money model, and shows that some empirical econometric equations which appear to ‘break down’ out of sample, had ... More


The Fog of Freedom

Christopher M. Kelty

in Media Technologies: Essays on Communication, Materiality, and Society

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780262525374
eISBN:
9780262319461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262525374.003.0010
Subject:
Society and Culture, Technology and Society

This chapter explores the relationship between the concept of freedom and the historical path that the design of computer technology has taken by bringing approaches from science and technology ... More


From the Philosophy of the Open to the Ideology of the User-Friendly

Lori Emerson

in Reading Writing Interfaces: From the Digital to the Bookbound

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780816691258
eISBN:
9781452949482
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816691258.003.0002
Subject:
Literature, Criticism/Theory

Chapter two moves to poets’ engagement with the transition from the late 1960s’ emphasis on openness and creativity in computing to the 1980s’ ideology of the user-friendly Graphical User Interface.


Reassessing the U.S. Quality Adjustment to Computer Prices: The Role of Durability and Changing Software

Robert C. Feenstra and Christopher R. Knittel (eds)

in Price Index Concepts and Measurement

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226148557
eISBN:
9780226148571
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226148571.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter, which provides a new reason for why conventional hedonic methods may overstate the price decline of personal computers, treats computers as a durable good and assumes that, as software ... More


Schumpeterian Competition and Diseconomies of Scope: Illustrations from the Histories of Microsoft and IBM

Timothy F. Bresnahan, Shane Greenstein, and Rebecca M. Henderson

in The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity Revisited

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226473031
eISBN:
9780226473062
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226473062.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter discusses the detailed case studies of two historically important transitions: the introduction of the personal computer and the browser. Its analysis allows it to both assess the ... More


The Interface: IBM and the Transformation of Corporate Design, 1945-1976

John Harwood

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780816670390
eISBN:
9781452946825
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816670390.001.0001
Subject:
Architecture, Architectural History

In February 1956 the president of IBM, Thomas Watson Jr., hired the industrial designer and architect Eliot Noyes, charging him with reinventing IBM’s corporate image, from stationery and curtains to ... More


Go to Your Multimedia Center!

Jason Reid

in Get Out of My Room!: A History of Teen Bedrooms in America

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780226409214
eISBN:
9780226409351
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226409351.003.0007
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

The sixth chapter of Get Out of My Room! examines a specific type of bedroom-oriented consumer product: home electronics. This chapter argues that home electronics items reinforced the uniqueness of ... More


Pink vs. Blue: The Emergence of Women in Machinima

Robert Jones

in The Machinima Reader

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015332
eISBN:
9780262295369
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015332.003.0017
Subject:
Computer Science, Game Studies

This chapter examines the issue of gender as it plays out in machinima. Drawing on the historical examples of amateur radio and the personal computer, it illustrates a historical trajectory that ... More


Next Generation Internet Users: A New Digital Divide

Grant Blank and William H. Dutton

in Society and the Internet: How Networks of Information and Communication are Changing Our Lives

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199661992
eISBN:
9780191782671
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199661992.003.0003
Subject:
Business and Management, Information Technology

One of the latest social trends around the Internet has been the rapid and wide scale diffusion of portable devices such as smartphones, tablets, and readers. This chapter argues that this is not a ... More


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