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Measuring Metabolic Rates: A Manual for Scientists

John R. B. Lighton

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195310610
eISBN:
9780199871414
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310610.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Biotechnology

The measurement of metabolic rates is important in many areas of science. Examples range from ecology through a broad spectrum of physiological disciplines to biomedical fields such as genetic ... More


Flow-Through Respirometry: The Equations

John R. B. Lighton

in Measuring Metabolic Rates: A Manual for Scientists

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195310610
eISBN:
9780199871414
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310610.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Biotechnology

This chapter de-mystifies respirometry equations, showing how they can be derived using a simple mental trick: concentrating the analysis on the principal gas that is neither consumed nor produced by ... More


Materials:: Old Techniques and New Solutions

Vaclav Smil

in Transforming the Twentieth Century: Volume 2: Technical Innovations and Their Consequences

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195168754
eISBN:
9780199783601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195168755.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Steel — made from iron in basic oxygen furnaces and electric arc furnaces, and turned into semifinished products by continuous casting — remained the dominant material of the 20th century. Completely ... More


Aquatic Oxygen Analysis

John R. B. Lighton

in Measuring Metabolic Rates: A Manual for Scientists

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195310610
eISBN:
9780199871414
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310610.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Biotechnology

Measuring oxygen consumption rates in aquatic media is the only practical method for determining the metabolic rates of cell cultures and aquatic organisms. This chapter describes the two principal ... More


Brain Enhancement and Other Magical Beliefs

Gary L. Wenk

in Your Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195388541
eISBN:
9780199863587
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388541.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic

No drugs or nutrients are currently available that can reverse the primary cause of cognitive decline: normal aging. Also, it is currently impossible to enhance the function of a normal brain. These ... More


Oxygen: A Four Billion Year History

Donald Eugene Canfield

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145020
eISBN:
9781400849888
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145020.001.0001
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

The air we breathe is 21 percent oxygen, an amount higher than on any other known world. While we may take our air for granted, Earth was not always an oxygenated planet. How did it become this way? ... More


Joseph Priestley, Scientist, Philosopher, and Theologian

Isabel Rivers and David L. Wykes (eds)

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199215300
eISBN:
9780191706929
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199215300.001.0001
Subject:
Religion, History of Christianity

Joseph Priestley was one of the most remarkable thinkers of the 18th century. Best known today as the scientist who discovered oxygen, he also made major contributions in the fields of education, ... More


Epilogue

Donald Eugene Canfield

in Oxygen: A Four Billion Year History

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145020
eISBN:
9781400849888
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145020.003.0012
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter summarizes key themes and presents some final thoughts. It argues that Earth as a planet has the “right stuff” to be an oxygen-accumulating planet. Having the right stuff, however, is ... More


A Brief History of Metabolic Measurement

John R. B. Lighton

in Measuring Metabolic Rates: A Manual for Scientists

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195310610
eISBN:
9780199871414
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310610.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Biotechnology

This chapter describes the evolution of respirometry from Leonardo da Vinci's musings onwards. The works of Boyle, the brilliant and prophetic Mayow, and the well-intentioned but misguided Priestley ... More


Constant Volume and Constant Pressure Respirometry

John R. B. Lighton

in Measuring Metabolic Rates: A Manual for Scientists

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195310610
eISBN:
9780199871414
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310610.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Biotechnology

This chapter describes constant pressure (Gilson) and constant volume (Warburg) respirometry — long-established techniques that are still capable of accurate results. These are useful for measuring ... More


Coulometric Respirometry

John R. B. Lighton

in Measuring Metabolic Rates: A Manual for Scientists

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195310610
eISBN:
9780199871414
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310610.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Biotechnology

This chapter describes the theory and practical applications of coulometric respirometry. Coulometric respirometry is probably the most accurate method for measuring oxygen consumption rates. It is ... More


Constant Volume Techniques Using Gas Analysis

John R. B. Lighton

in Measuring Metabolic Rates: A Manual for Scientists

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195310610
eISBN:
9780199871414
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310610.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Biotechnology

By using modern gas analyzers and variations of constant volume techniques described in Chapter 2, simple and high-throughput measurement of the metabolic rates of organisms ranging in size from ... More


Flow-Through Respirometry Using Incurrent Flow Measurement

John R. B. Lighton

in Measuring Metabolic Rates: A Manual for Scientists

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195310610
eISBN:
9780199871414
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310610.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Biotechnology

This chapter describes the setup, plumbing, and equations required for applying a respirometry system wherein the flow rate of the air entering the animal chamber is known. Such systems are usually ... More


Flow-Through Respirometry Using Excurrent Flow Measurement

John R. B. Lighton

in Measuring Metabolic Rates: A Manual for Scientists

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195310610
eISBN:
9780199871414
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310610.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Biotechnology

This chapter describes the setup, the plumbing, and the equations for implementing a respirometry system wherein the flow rate of the air leaving the animal chamber is known. Such systems are usually ... More


The Varieties of Gas Analyzers

John R. B. Lighton

in Measuring Metabolic Rates: A Manual for Scientists

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195310610
eISBN:
9780199871414
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310610.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Biotechnology

All analyzers have strengths and limitations that vary with the technology used, and directly affect their suitability for different types of metabolic rate measurement. This chapter discusses the ... More


Evolutionary Innovations and Environmental Change

Toby Tyrrell

in On Gaia: A Critical Investigation of the Relationship between Life and Earth

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691121581
eISBN:
9781400847914
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691121581.003.0007
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter focuses on internally generated changes due to evolutionary inventions of new forms life. These evolutionary inventions include the evolution of oxygen-yielding photosynthesis and the ... More


Conclusion

Steven L. Chown and Sue W. Nicolson

in Insect Physiological Ecology: Mechanisms and Patterns

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198515494
eISBN:
9780191705649
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515494.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter integrates the major conclusions from the book. It focuses on how much is known about variation in insect physiology from the phylogenetic and geographic perspectives, raising the issue ... More


Measuring Freshwater Primary Production and Respiration

Robert O. Hall Jr., Serge Thomas, and Evelyn E. Gaiser

in Principles and Standards for Measuring Primary Production

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195168662
eISBN:
9780199790128
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195168662.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Despite a long history of research, measurements of the metabolism of freshwater ecosystems have undergone many recent methodological improvements that are summarized in this chapter. After ... More


Photosynthesis

David M. Wilkinson

in Fundamental Processes in Ecology: An earth systems approach

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198568469
eISBN:
9780191717611
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568469.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Photosynthesis — both anoxygenic and oxygenic — allows access to new sources of energy. Oxygenic photosynthesis has the potential to create an oxygen-rich atmosphere and so allow aerobic respiration, ... More


Respiration in aquatic ecosystems: history and background

Peter J. le B. Williams and Paul A. del Giorgio

in Respiration in Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198527084
eISBN:
9780191713347
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198527084.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

This introductory chapter presents a general historical, biochemical, and ecological background to the topics covered in this book, and sets the following chapters in a broad context. The various ... More


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