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Respiration in the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zones of the oceans

Javier Arístegui, Susana Agustí, Jack J. Middelburg, and Carlos M. Duarte

in Respiration in Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198527084
eISBN:
9780191713347
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198527084.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter reviews the mechanisms of transport and remineralization of organic matter in the dark water-columns and sediments of the oceans. Different approaches to estimating respiration rates are ... More


Proteins: Amino Acids and Amines

Thomas S. Bianchi and Elizabeth A. Canuel

in Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134147
eISBN:
9781400839100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134147.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter discusses proteins, which make up approximately 50% of organic matter and contain about 85% of the organic nitrogen in marine organisms. Peptides and proteins comprise an important ... More


What Controls Atmospheric Oxygen Concentrations?

Donald Eugene Canfield

in Oxygen: A Four Billion Year History

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145020
eISBN:
9781400849888
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145020.003.0005
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter deals with the fundamental question of why there is oxygen in the atmosphere at all. It seeks to identify the main processes controlling the oxygen concentration. Plants and ... More


Carbohydrates: Neutral and Minor Sugars

Thomas S. Bianchi and Elizabeth A. Canuel

in Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134147
eISBN:
9781400839100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134147.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter covers carbohydrates, the most abundant class of biopolymers on Earth and significant components of water column particulate organic matter and dissolved organic matter in aquatic ... More


Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems

Thomas S. Bianchi and Elizabeth A. Canuel

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134147
eISBN:
9781400839100
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134147.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This textbook provides a unique and thorough look at the application of chemical biomarkers to aquatic ecosystems. Defining a chemical biomarker as a compound that can be linked to particular sources ... More


Trophic Interactions in Subtidal Rocky Reefs on the West Coast of South Africa

George M. Branch

in Food Webs and the Dynamics of Marine Reefs

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195319958
eISBN:
9780199869596
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195319958.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

The chapter summarizes the ecology of the subtidal reefs of South Africa. Discussions include the role of wind, productivity, and oceanographic conditions, the important role of currents and the ... More


Wetland Ecosystem Processes

Robert G. Wetzel

in Ecology of Freshwater and Estuarine Wetlands

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520247772
eISBN:
9780520932890
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520247772.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

By definition, the water table of wetlands is near, at, or above the hydrosoil (sediment) surface. These changing hydrologic conditions are primary drivers of nutrient fluxes in the sediments and all ... More


The soil environment

Richard D. Bardgett

in The Biology of Soil: A community and ecosystem approach

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198525035
eISBN:
9780191728181
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525035.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Soil forms a thin mantle over the Earth's surface and acts as the interface between the atmosphere and lithosphere, the outermost shell of the Earth. It is a multiphase system, consisting of mineral ... More


Biogeochemistry and Bacterial Ecology of Hydrologically Dynamic Wetlands

Paul I. Boon

in Ecology of Freshwater and Estuarine Wetlands

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520247772
eISBN:
9780520932890
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520247772.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Many studies fail to acknowledge that wetlands are by nature incredibly dynamic habitats in terms of hydrology, and that episodic wetting and drying has a profound influence on chemical reactions and ... More


Semmelweis

Irvine Loudon

in The Tragedy of Childbed Fever

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198204992
eISBN:
9780191676444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198204992.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines some of the myths about the contribution of Hungarian physician Ignaz Semmelweis to the prevention of and treatment of puerperal fever. Semmelweis made several important ... More


Photosynthesis

David M. Wilkinson

in Fundamental Processes in Ecology: An earth systems approach

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198568469
eISBN:
9780191717611
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568469.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Photosynthesis — both anoxygenic and oxygenic — allows access to new sources of energy. Oxygenic photosynthesis has the potential to create an oxygen-rich atmosphere and so allow aerobic respiration, ... More


The Role of Soils in Storage and Cycling of Mercury

Aria Amirbahman and Ivan J. Fernandez

in Mercury in the Environment: Pattern and Process

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780520271630
eISBN:
9780520951396
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520271630.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This is a review of the biogeochemical processes that control speciation and transport of inorganic mercury and methylmercury in soils. Mercury storage is discussed with respect to well-drained ... More


Soil Ecosystem Resilience and Recovery

Stuart A. Grandy, Jennifer M. Fraterrigo, and Sharon A. Billings

in Soil Ecology and Ecosystem Services

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199575923
eISBN:
9780191774843
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199575923.003.0031
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter applies ecological theory to examine long-term soil dynamics. It develops ideas about soil recovery from disturbance as a means to guide future investigations of soil resilience as ... More


Degradation of organic material

David L. Kirchman

in Processes in Microbial Ecology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199586936
eISBN:
9780191774645
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199586936.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter focuses on the aerobic oxidation of organic material by microbes. Microbes account for about 50 per cent of primary production in the biosphere, but they probably account for more than ... More


Degradation of organic matter

David L. Kirchman

in Processes in Microbial Ecology

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198789406
eISBN:
9780191831256
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198789406.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Aquatic Biology

The aerobic oxidation of organic material by microbes is the focus of this chapter. Microbes account for about 50% of primary production in the biosphere, but they probably account for more than 50% ... More


Peat and organic soil

Håkan Rydin and John K. Jeglum

in The Biology of Peatlands

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199602995
eISBN:
9780191810138
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199602995.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter examines the organic-rich soil profiles of peat. It first considers the process of peat formation by organic matter through sedentation and sedimentation before comparing the organic ... More


Development and Limitations of Biological Activity in Surface Waters

Matthieu Roy-Barman and Catherine Jeandel

in Marine Geochemistry: Ocean Circulation, Carbon Cycle and Climate Change

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
December 2016
ISBN:
9780198787495
eISBN:
9780191829604
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198787495.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

Ocean life is organized in complex ecosystems fed by the photosynthesis of organic matter in the photic zone. The biological activity is seasonal because it is closely linked with nutrient repletion ... More


Photosynthesis

Tim Lenton and Andrew Watson

in Revolutions that made the Earth

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199587049
eISBN:
9780191775031
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199587049.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

This chapter discusses the process of oxygenic photosynthesis, which first evolved in a water-borne cyanobacterium. Cyanobacteria are ultimately responsible for the oxygen-rich air that we breathe. ... More


Recovery of Particulate Organic Matter Dynamics in a Stream Draining a Logged Watershed: A Pressing Situation

Jackson R. Webster, E. F. Benfield, Stephen W. Golladay, and Matthew E. McTammany

in Long-Term Response of a Forest Watershed Ecosystem: Clearcutting in the Southern Appalachians

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780195370157
eISBN:
9780190267933
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780195370157.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

Watershed (WS) 7 at Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory was logged in 1977. The stream draining this watershed, Big Hurricane Branch, was affected in many ways. While the stream has recovered in some ... More


Productivity and peat accumulation

Håkan Rydin and John K. Jeglum

in The Biology of Peatlands

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199602995
eISBN:
9780191810138
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199602995.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter focuses on peatland productivity and accumulation (above- and below-ground). It begins with an overview of peatland biomass and productivity before describing processes underlying the ... More


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